The Concept of Acute Kidney Injury
Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious health issue characterized by the loss of kidney function because of the damage to the kidney issue done by the decreased blood flow, inflammatory process, or an obstruction of the urinary tract (Thornburg & Gray-Vickrey, 2016). The given state can be dangerous for a patient.
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Acute Kidney Disease or Injury Disease Description It is a severe medical problem that is followed by renal blood flow or inflammation as the main symptoms (Thornburg & Gray-Vickrey, 2016). The causes for the emergence of the given problem can be different. These include hyperfusion, hypersensitivity reactions, or direct injury (Vrtis, 2013). If left untreated, lethal outcomes can be observed. AKI Manifestations The disease is accompanied by a sudden change in kidney functions, acute pain, the feeling of discomfort, and a significant decrease in urinary output (Thornburg & Gray-Vickrey, 2016). At the same time, the rise in serum creatinine can be observed (Thornburg & Gray-Vickrey, 2016). All these symptoms might emerge within 48 hours. Risk Factors There are several risk factors traditionally associated with the disease. These include the elderly age, previous heart or liver failures, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, or black race (Chawla, Eggers, Star, & Kimmel, 2014). At the same time, the use of intravascular radiocontrast agents can cause serious damage to the kidneys. Individual Predisposition to the Disease There are also people who are predisposed to AKI because of the specific cell types, vascular endothelial growth factor, use of drugs, or peculiarities of the urinary system (Chawla et al., 2014). Moreover, black ethnicities should also be aware of the problem as they belong to the risk group. Clinical Review By the relevant statistics, AKI comprises 8-16% of hospital admissions (Sawhney & Fraser, 2017). Specialists also admit the relation between AKI and chronic kidney disease and the absence of a genetic factor (Sawhney & Fraser, 2017). The success of treatment depends on the stage and clinical testing. Treatment Plan There are different approaches to treatment. They might include intravenous fluid administration at early stages, and dialysis to assist the patient (Vrtis, 2013). At the same time, Nephrotoxicity should be taken into account.
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Nursing Interventions Nurses should determine the risk factors in patients to discover the causes for the development of the disease. It is also critical to measure the serum creatinine level as one of the indicators of the disease. Patients should be recommended to avoid using drugs with strong reactions and provided with primary care. Measures Taken after Surgical Interventions After the surgical treatment, the urine output should be measured hourly and health indicators monitored (Vrtis, 2013). At the same time, the comprehensive and permanent care with intravenous treatment and control over the disease’s development should be aligned. Necessary Patient Education All patients should be educated about the existing risk factors and self-help before and after interventions (Chawla et al., 2014). It becomes an effective intervention at all stages. Finally, the importance of nurses’ assistance should be outlined (Thornburg & Gray-Vickrey, 2016). Literature Review Results Sources Evaluation Only peer-reviewed articles published in nursing journals and not more than five years old were used for the project. It guaranteed the relevance and the high credibility of data. Three primaries and one secondary source were utilized. Differences Among Sources Primary sources are used to collect valuable information about the pathophysiology and manifestations of the disease. At the same time, both primary and secondary sources contribute to the success of discussing the selected topic. Research Recommendations For further search, more sources can be needed. It is also critical to include cultural considerations in the report. At the same time, it is essential to assess the current clinical situation to formulate credible outcomes. Conclusion AKI remains a dangerous disease with the specific individual risk factors and symptoms that are assessed in the project. There is a need for certain nursing and physician’s interventions as well as patient education to solve the problem that remains urgent today.
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References Chawla, L. S., Eggers, P. W., Star, R. A., & Kimmel, P. L. (2014). Acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease as interconnected syndromes. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(1), 58-66. Web. Sawhney, S., & Fraser, S. (2017). Epidemiology of AKI: Utilizing large databases to determine the burden of AKI. Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease, 24(4), 194-204. Web. Thornburg, B., & Gray-Vickrey, P. (2016). Acute kidney injury. Nursing, 46(6), 24-34. Web. Vrtis, M. (2013). Preventing and responding to acute kidney injury. AJN, American Journal of Nursing, 113(4), 38-47. Web.