PUB600 Public Health Research And Evidence

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PUB600 Public Health Research And Evidence

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PUB600 Public Health Research And Evidence

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Course Code: PUB600
University: University Of The Sunshine Coast

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Country: Australia

Question
You will devise a data-base search strategy and conduct the search to review the research literature on university student wellbeing on a specific area e.g. mental wellbeing, nutrition, alcohol use etc. and briefly summarise what is known about this issue.

Answer

Introduction
The purpose of this report is to investigate the financial related problems faced by international students in the University and Australia at large. In the current years, international students have increased by 65% since the year 2000 globally accounting for more than 3.3 million students (1). Australia has become one of the best global markets for international students after the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom. Students often prefer to study overseas than locally for better education and international experience(2). Studying as international students has better benefits in terms of jobs market. However, International students are subjected to various deficits while studying. One of the major hindrances is the financial associated challenges which may lead to stress and poor performances.  In addition, due to financial constraints, international students  are subjected to other problems like lack of accommodation, physical health problems, insufficient basic needs like clothing and food, poor or lack of convenient transport system and lack of educational materials like equipment and computers(3). This report seeks to address the above current financial associated problems that international students encountered.
Literature Review
Most of the international students in the university are always having various challenges majorly associated with financial constraints. There are various reasons as to why international students face this challenge. First, most of the international students come from the poor backgrounds and largely depend on scholarships and donations(1,4). The money given through scholarship is largely used for tuition purposes only thus the students are forced to look for other sources of income in order to cater for basic needs. Due to cultural differences, language barriers, the burden of school work and lack of expertise,  finding a part-time job while studying becomes a problem(5). Secondly, international students do not get government loans. Most of the government spending priorities are under Medicare and current expenditures thus allocating money for international students loans becomes a problem. Thirdly, the tuition fees for private international students is much higher as compared to the local students(3). Due to this fact, students spent more money on paying for school thus remaining with little amounts which cannot cater for other needs. Lastly, most of the international students use foreign currency. The cost for exchange rates may be high leaving them with minimum amounts of money thus affecting their financial stabilities(1,6). Therefore, international students are more disadvantaged when it comes to financial status as compared to the local students.
Due to financial problems, there are other associated problems that international students face. According to current health surveys, most of the international students stay in poor accommodation facilities. International students tend to go for accommodation facilities that are cheap due to financial difficulties(3,4). Those cheap houses often have poor sanitation and are located in high crime areas thus coping becomes difficult. In addition, the international students always use inconvenient modes of transport majorly the buses. Sometimes, transportation through buses can be stressful in terms of time thus to get to school in time can be difficult. Other than that, most of the international students eat once a day since affording three meals a day is much expensive for them(6). These financial associated problems make it difficult for international students to have a comfortable condition for learning.
According to a study by Dalia Saleh in 2017, most of the international students face stressful situations and preoccupations due to financial difficulties(7). A total of 483 students were collected including both local and international students aged between 18 to 24 years. The results of the study showed that about 73% and 79% of the students, the majority of the international students suffered from either anxiety, psychological distress and depressive symptoms(7).  More than half of the international students were suffering from low self-esteem and little optimism mainly due to financial problems.  Students suffering from psychological problems often tend to have lower grades and failures at school (7).In the United Kingdom, a number of studies have linked mental health in international students with financial difficulties. A study by Richardson in 2013 showed that 41% of mental health related conditions in international students had financial difficulties as compared to 17.5% who had no money problem(8). A significant relationship was found between financial constraints and suicide, depression, drug use and dependence, psychotic and neurotic disorders(8). The study concluded that financial support is the key element for students studying higher education especially the international students who have limited ways of getting money.
International students usually have limited opportunities when it comes to employment options(5). This is due to the fact that, international students are only allowed to work at universities as regulated by their student visa. Despite the valuable contribution of the international students, most universities do not offer enough job opportunities in order to enable them to support their basic needs.  Other than that, most of the locals think international students have come to grab job opportunities for their children thus giving a part-time job for an international student becomes a problem(6). However, international students have other option through which they can obtain money for their needs. This includes scholarships and aid provided by the university, grants from other charity organizations, the school provided loans which is only applicable in some universities, school jobs and private loans from people such as politicians(1). However, all the possible options depending on various factors and securing any one of them is difficult. Before applying to study abroad, it is advisable for students to understand the benefits the university is offering, amount of scholarship, possible hardships and legal issues related to the visa application(9). Other than that, the government should increase employment options for international students and the universities should always try to incorporate them in school jobs in order to promote their financial stabilities.            
Appraisal of Qualitative Article           
Inhospitable Workplaces? International Students and Paid Work in Food Services
This aim of this study was to examine the characteristics of jobs done by international students due to financial problems. The study included a group of international students working in a Melbourne café, take away food services and restaurant sectors. The study was based on the facts that, most of the international students in Australia usually work on paid work as a part-time job to cater for their basics needs.  Their services suit the employment, as most of the takeaway food and cafes do not usually require more knowledge and skills.  Though the details of the work are not complicated, various reports suggest that most international students are poses to poor wages and working conditions. Due to these facts, qualitative interviews of the students were performed to determine if there were any social injustices.
The results showed that poor employment conditions were widespread among international students where they were posed to underpayment and non-payment wages.  A significant number of international students were found to have been working for months without pay and more than half were underpaid. Some of the reasons which facilitated to this condition include language barrier, discrimination, and lack of enough government control. None of the international students explained to have been working in favorable conditions as compared to the local students. In addition, the result further demonstrated how some of the restaurant and café were taking advantages of the financial problems the international students had to breach labor regulation laws. Other than that, the results showed that such illegal employes practices were facilitated by the use of undeclared casual work.
The study concluded that underpayment to the international students was the most severe in cafes and restaurants which claim to follow ethical standards. Such restaurants were concentrated in employing international students only to escape labor regulations as the students lack any other means of getting money for their basic needs.  The study also added that there were other restaurants where international students could work with other local workers but received very poor wages in the same job category. The report suggested that new employment opportunities should be created for international students to enable them to escape job discrimination and enforce them through their studies.
Appraisal of Quantitative Article
International Medical Students- A survey of perceived challenges and Established Support Services at Medical faculties
The aim of the study was to determine the background challenges faced by international students in medical faculties in Germany. The study was conducted in 2013 on 36 medical faculties training medical students. The faculties were interviewed using questionnaires about the percentage of non –German students, difficulties and the challenges the students were facing, available offers they were given and possible options for support.
Regarding the proportion of the international students, 42% of all medical faculties could not give any indication of how many international students they had. Those medical faculties could not give the specific statistics available or how they could obtain it. Furthermore, 19% of all medical faculties only reported the estimated figures. Only 39% of them had an elaborate statistic and exact figures of all non-German students they had. In terms of financial challenges, 28% of the faculties responded that international students had various financial problems in such a way many could work while studying to minimize the capacity of leaning the syllabus. More than half of the medical facilities believed that financial constraints and intercultural issues were the major challenges affecting the medical students. Possible problems that relate to financial constraints were a failure of exams, inadequate basic needs like food, accommodation and shelter. Other than that, financial constraints were associated with health problems, stress and psychological problems, and lack of employment.
In terms of financial support provided by medical faculties to the students, no any percentage of all facilities reported or showed they had a program of which they support their students financially. This proved that international students usually have financial problems of which little is done by institutions they are learning. The only support that was given to the international students by all faculties was intercultural education alone.  Only 8% of the of all the medical faculties provided the solution for financial challenges. However, no specific solution was provided.
The above study demonstrates that financial problems are among the other challenges that many international students face while studying.  Although some of the many universities acknowledge that, only a few are willing to help students be able to be financially fit. From, the study, no medical faculty had any plan to support international students financially or even offering them work at the university. This proves how most of the needy international students are neglected in university institutions. All universities should address the issue in order to reduce a burden of challenges international students have as related to money problems.
Conclusion
In conclusion, Australia is among the top of global markets for international students after the UK and the USA. International education has increased globally due to various benefits obtained such as an increase in experience and better education. However international students are subjected to various challenges one of them being financial problems. Financial constraints and difficulties are common among the international students studying in Australia. This is due to various reasons such as many international students depends on scholarships as they come from poor backgrounds, lack of government loans to international students, higher tuition fees and increase in the cost of exchange rates. Due to financial problems, international students tend to have accommodation problems, inconvenient transport, lack of basic needs and poor academic performance. Other than that, international students often lack jobs due to visa regulations and those who are lucky to get low wages jobs are discriminated and poorly paid.  Other than that, international students usually have poor quality health and mental problems associated with financial problems.  However, international students can obtain fund from donors, scholarship, private loans and employment from the university. The government should develop strategies and policies that increase opportunities for employment of international students in order to help them cater to their needs.
References
Gebhard EdD JG. International Students’ Adjustment Problems and Behaviors. J Int Students [Internet]. 2012;2(2):184–93. Available from: https://colorado.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.proquest.com/docview/1355249298?accountid=14503%5Cnhttps://rp8jq9jy4s.search.serialssolutions.com/?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info:ofi/enc:UTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/ProQ:education&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:
 
Çetin Y, Bahar M, Griffiths C. International Students’ Views on Local Culture: Turkish Experience. J Int Students [Internet]. 2017;7(3):2166–3750. Available from: https://jistudents.org/
 
Talebloo B, Baki R. Challenges Faced by International Postgraduate Students during their First Year of Studies. Int J Humanit Soc Sci. 2013;3(13):138–45.
 
Baharak Talebloo RBB. Multicultural Benefits and Challenges for International Students during Period of Their Study: Case Study in Malaysia. J Educ Heal Community Psychol. 2015;4(1):42–54.
 
Campbell I, Boese M, Tham JC. Inhospitable workplaces? International students and paid work in food services: Aust J Soc Issues. 2016;51(3):279–98.
 
Huhn D, Junne F, Zipfel S, Duelli R, Resch F, Herzog W, et al. International medical students–a survey of perceived challenges and established support services at medical faculties. GMS Zeitschrift fu?r medizinische Ausbildung [Internet]. 2015;32(1):Doc9. Available from: https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=4330639&tool=pmcentrez&rendertype=abstract
 
Saleh D, Camart N, Romo L. Predictors of stress in college students. Vol. 8, Frontiers in Psychology. 2017.
 
Richardson T, Elliott P, Roberts R, Jansen M. A Longitudinal Study of Financial Difficulties and Mental Health in a National Sample of British Undergraduate Students. Community Ment Health J. 2017;53(3):344–52.
 
Mahfoodh OHA. Oral academic discourse socialisation: Challenges faced by international undergraduate students in a Malaysian public University. Int Educ Stud. 2014;7(2).

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