PSY 520 Psychology

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PSY 520 Psychology

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PSY 520 Psychology

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Course Code: PSY520
University: Southern New Hampshire University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

Write about Physical Development in Early Adulthood, one’s environment as a possible contributing factor.

Early adulthood is defined as the period between 18 years and 25 years. This period bears a significant effect on the overall development  into adulthood hood. The physical environment that one lives in has been seen to significantly affect individuals as they transcend through this period of life (Czerwinski et al.,2007).
The physical environment entails the surroundings that one lives in.   The physical environment is capable of affecting the growth and development through adulthood in many ways including through the availability of resources. In cases where resources are not available, the individual likely experiences a slower development process. The availability of resources such as food, water and learning opportunities means that an individual is likely to have a slower  development process in terms of both achievement and physical growth (Czerwinski et al.,2007). This attribute can be seen in cases where individuals from less privileged societies or areas are less likely to have higher chances of development in later life. In contrast however, individuals who are in environments with available resources such as food, water, educational resources and others have been seen to be more successful in future life (Czerwinski et al.,2007)
The physical environment also entails support systems such as friends, family and support groups of various types. In cases where by individuals live around criminals, drug addicts, or are in dysfunctional families it is highly unlikely that the development process through early adulthood will produce positive output throughout their lives. In such cases individuals will more likely end up developing the same attributes (Fienberg et al., 2007).. The  likelihood of external influence from peers increases when they are continually bombarded by negativity and bad behaviors (Fienberg et al., 2007).
Study’s also confirm that individuals who had better feeding patterns during their young age are more likely to develop further in terms of achievement. This dresses the fact that the availability of food and resources during  the period of physical growth and development is essential for future achievements (Garcia et al., 2013). Therefore yeah availability of food that is the nutritional environment is essential for the development and gross during the early childhood period, and to an extent effects d early adulthood development process ( Garcia et al., 2013).
The presence of toxins within the  environment plays a significant role in affecting the growth and development process during early adulthood. It can be seen that individuals who are found in areas where lead is present in high proportions have cognitive deficits. In this regard, individuals who are in these areas during their early adulthood period have higher exposures and thus higher likelihoods of cognitive deficits. The environment plays a significant role in the overall cognitive capacity and overall physical development process ( Tully et al., 2010).
The presence of other toxins such as mercury play a significant role in affecting the growth and development process individuals who are found in areas with mercury have higher cognitive deficits compared to those who are in areas where mercury is in low amounts. Mercury affect the overall intellectual process and thus reduces the ability of the individual think and develop effectively (Tully et al., 2010). In addition mercury effects the nervous system and other systems within the body that’s reducing the quality of life.  This can be seen in places such as china methylmercury has affected the overall cognitive development of children adults individuals in early adulthood and the general population in general.  The impact of living in an area with manufacturers and toxins cannot be underestimated as this increases the likelihood of both physiological emotional and to an extent even spiritual health problems.  In this case and the environment significantly effects the physical development during the early adulthood ( Tully et al., 2010).
The presence of noise within the environment places a very significant burden  during on the individual during the development process. The presence of noise within the environment affects  the acquisition of knowledge and information. Those in school are less likely to concentrate if they are within environments that  have a lot of noise. Noise reduces productivity and ultimately reduces the Quality of life when transcending into the adulthood period (Kendler et al.,2008).
High crime rates such as those if rape in south Africa have a profound effect on the development process. Individuals in these type of environments are more likely to live in fear and have a reduced expression of self. Self esteem disturbance may be caused when individuals are shamed when raped or those close to them undergo such acts. The individuals most at risk are those transcending through the early adulthood period (Kendler et al.,2008). It is essential that such individuals are taught on safety mechanisms that can be used to avoid the occurrence of such acts (Kendler et al.,2008).
An environment with individuals who are drug and substance abusers also increases the risk for those growing through the periods of early adulthood. Peers with negative  ideations may derail the direction of the young and less them to the use and misuse of drugs and other illicit substances ( Knapp, 2008).
The use of drug has been linked to a high mortality rate. After the use drugs it is highly likely that they youth will engage in promiscuous behavior and these may lead to the contracting of other diseases such as HIV  and AIDs. The fact that they are in environments with structures such as bars containing various spirits, the risk of problems during the development process increases (Knapp, 2008).
Environmental stressors such as dry weather or living in a desert can not go unrecognized. Individuals who live in environments with a lot of stressors are mire likely to have a slower growth and development process. However, those in areas with vegetation and a conducive environment grow and develop better into adulthood and have higher chances of success in future life (Knapp, 2008).
Improved parenting practices also play a significant role in improving the quality of life of the early adults who are in poverty. Poverty in itself contributes to the economic and physical environment of the child during the early adult from the adolescent the early adult period. In cases where individuals are stricken with poverty , it is unlikely that they  will end up growing normally through the early adulthood period. Conversely, it has been identified that having supporting parents, who do not criticize but encourage the adolescent as he or she develops through the early adulthood period actually increases chances of success and reduces mental problems( Knapp, 2008).
Depression is the most common psychiatric condition when adolescents transcend to the early adulthood period. This is because of the many peers present who poses different attributes to them , are wealthier than they are or have more friends compared to them. In most cases this type of depression can be managed when the youth at encouraged by their parents and support group. Being in a friendly environment where people listen, support and promote the emotional and physical development through the early adulthood period significantly reduces emotional and psychological problems and improves the quality of life of the individuals in question (Wright et al., 2008).
Many factors affect physical development during the early adulthood period. It is essential that more research is performed in order to identify how the physical environment further affects the development of individuals during the early adulthood period. The environment is broad and unique. However, the particular effects of various factors within it should be identified and appropriate management strategies employed. Many  factors still remain unexplored and further research is needed on the topic.
Czerwinski, S. A., Lee, M., Choh, A. C., Wurzbacher, K., Demerath, E. W., Towne, B., & Siervogel, R. M. (2007). Genetic factors in physical growth and development and their relationship to subsequent health outcomes. American Journal of Human Biology, 19(5), 684-691.
Fienberg, M., Button, T., Neiderhiser, J. M., Reiss, D., & Hetheringtion, E. M. (2007). Parenting and adolescent antisocial behavior and depression: evidence of genotype x parenting interaction. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 64, 457-465.
Garcia, S. E., Tully, E. C., Tarantino, N., South, S., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2013). Changes in genetic and environmental influences on trait anxiety from middle adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(1), 46-53.
Tully, E. C., Iacono, W. G., & McGue, M. (2010). Changes in genetic and environmental influences on the development of nicotine dependence and major depressive disorder from middle adolescence to early adulthood. Development and psychopathology, 22(4), 831-848.
Kendler, K. S., Schmitt, E., Aggen, S. H., & Prescott, C. A. (2008). Genetic and environmental influences on alcohol, caffeine, cannabis, and nicotine use from early adolescence to middle adulthood. Archives of general psychiatry, 65(6), 674-682.
Knapp, M. (2008). Health economics. Rutter’s Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 123-133.
Wright, J. P., Dietrich, K. N., Ris, M. D., Hornung, R. W., Wessel, S. D., Lanphear, B. P., … & Rae, M. N. (2008). Association of prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations with criminal arrests in early adulthood. PLoS Medicine, 5(5), e101

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