MBA621 : Healthcare Systems

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MBA621 : Healthcare Systems

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MBA621 : Healthcare Systems

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Course Code: MBA621
University: Kaplan University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: United States

A. Description of the ProgramProgram descriptions convey the mission and objectives of the program being evaluated. Descriptions should be sufficiently detailed to ensure understanding of program goals and strategies. The description should discuss the program’s capacity to effect change and its stage of development. Program descriptions set the frame of reference for all subsequent decisions in an evaluation. Areas for consideration are:Need – a statement of need describes the problem or opportunity that the program addresses and implies how the program will respond.Activities – describing program activities – what the program does to effect change.Resources – resources include the time, talent, technology, equipment, information, money, and other assets available to conduct program activities.
B. Ethical ConsiderationsMost health programs and professionals operate under ethical guidelines that are based on four overarching principles.1. Help or benefit to others – promoting others’ interests, by helping individuals, organisations, or society as a whole.2. Do no harm – bringing no harm, such as physical injury and psychological harm (such as damage to reputation, self-esteem, or emotional well-being).3. Act fairly – treating people fairly and without regard to race, gender, socioeconomic status, and other characteristics.4. Respect others – respecting individuals’ rights to act freely and to make their own choices, while protecting the rights of those who may be unable to fully protect themselves. How well does the chosen program address these and other program-specific ethical considerations (e.g. patient confidentiality)?
C. Risk Identification and ManagementThe definition of risk has changed from ‘the chance of something happening that will have an impact on objectives’ to ‘the effect of uncertainty on objectives’. (AS/NZS ISO 31000:2009 Risk Management – Principles and Guidelines).
Each health organisation and program faces unique challenges, there is not a one-model-fits-all risk management solution. Consider the chosen program and its capacity to manage risk regarding issues such as:Patient safetyMandatory Federal and State regulationsPotential medical errorExisting and future policyLegislation impacting the field of healthcare
D. Quality and SafetyThe primary aims of the National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards introduced in Australia in 2011 were very specific. They focused on protecting the public from harm and to improve the quality of health service provision. They provided “a quality assurance mechanism that tests whether relevant systems are in place to ensure minimum standards of safety and quality are met, and a quality improvement mechanism that allows health services to realise aspirational or developmental goals (
The Standards were designed to be used by all health services and programs as part of their internal quality assurance mechanisms or as part of an external accreditation process.
Using the NSQHS Standards as a guide, evaluate the quality and safety activities and initiatives for theselected program.
Program description

The New South Wales Aboriginal Immunization Health Care Worker Program was formed with the aim of closing the gap in immunization between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Research has indicated that there is a low rate of vaccination and more significant delays in vaccination than non-Aboriginal children. It also focuses on the timeliness of vaccination for Aboriginal children during their first year of life. The program outlines a scope of communication materials to enhance immunization for Aboriginal individuals as part of the “save the Date to Vaccine” campaign. They distribute the materials throughout New South Wales to support the Local Health Districts in the vaccination process at local community events (Raman et al.  2017, pp.899-905).
The program also identifies children overdue for vaccination from Australian Childhood Immunization Register. The program also focuses on following up with the givers and the guardians of children late for immunization to organize for a get back vaccination. Furthermore,   the employees of the program update the vaccination status of children who have been listed on Australian Childhood Immunization Register to ensure accuracy. Besides, the program collaborates with Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service to create systems for active engagement with new mothers with on-time infant immunization (Thornton et al. 2017, pp.CVI-00556).
It also collaborates with Aboriginal Medical Services, community health centers, and other services to affiliate immunization into routine health delivery.  The program works with immunization givers and Medicare locals to encourage notification of vaccines in a timely way. They also attend local community events to enhance immunization and executing approaches to enhance Aboriginal identification, including working with Aboriginal Identification project officers. The program also helps in targeting resources in low immunization coverage.
Ethical consideration
The officials always have face to face meetings with other health centers to ensure that their employees correctly administer vaccinations. It helps new mothers to be aware of the importance of immunizing a child. The program creates awareness about immunization and effects of diseases that are caused by a lack of immunization (McAullay et al. 2016, p.82). It helps individuals in Australia to fully understand immunization particularly those who live in rural areas which makes it difficult for them to get help from a community health center. It aims at reducing the breach of immunization between the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. It also identifies barriers to immunization and creating appropriate local responses.
The victims` reports are confidential, and they strive to help other individuals wholeheartedly. This means that they help many children without exposing them to the public. The issues that are identified are dealt with accordingly and effectively. The staff is encouraged to practice confidentiality to prevent discrimination from other individuals. The program initiates respect to one another together with the victims to avoid unnecessary ethical issues (Dunne et al.2016, p.15). Honesty is also required in the program because of open communication between the health experts and the community. Individuals in the city are treated fairly with the practitioners and offer their services willingly that help them in reducing the gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The staff obeys their senior’s instructions at all times which creates a good relationship in the program.
The New South Wales Aboriginal Immunization Health Care Worker Program plays a vital role in immunization. It has proven to be the most productive public health mediation to enhance the indemnity of vaccination rates and seasonableness for Aboriginal children. It helps in improving the Aboriginal identification in immunization delivery service including for adolescents as part of the program. It promotes the well-being of the Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. If a worker goes against the rules and regulations of the program, he or she is disciplined or even lead to contract termination (Hall et al. 2018).
Those who want to volunteer in the organization, they must have undergone full training and poses knowledge about immunization and diseases. This is important because they will interact with many individuals particularly the new mothers who will require enlightenment about immunization. The staff must also have the police clearance to ensure that their character is impressive which enhances the purpose of the program (Yang and Studdert 2017, pp.803-804). This is essential because it will create a good image of the program. It facilitates community health events and ensures that there are enough health practitioners to offer their services to the community. The program treats people equally regardless of their race or ethnicity.  
Risk identification and management
Patients’ safety
This program aims to enhance security by reducing the space between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in immunization coverage. It does this by creating changes related to biological variation and quality defects inherent risks with vaccines. The program also uses risk management systems which monitor and evaluates potential clinical effects (Sibthorpe et al. 2017, pp.1-9). This ensures that the patient’s safety is guaranteed as risks involved will be discovered early enough and the necessary solution will be given.  The program identifies the risks involved and examines how the risks can happen and also determine how the risk can be eliminated. It also manages the risk by establishing the person responsible for taking actions and how it will be monitored (Anon 2018). The program works with various organizations both private and public to ensure that the community is safe from diseases. Furthermore, the program also educates the public concerning the benefits of immunization. It creates opportunities for people to understand the risks involved and how to manage them appropriately.
Mandatory Federal and State regulations
Immunization space between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children has been identified by the Australian government. The program is required to determine the difference and provide a long-term solution to the problem. The program should work together with other health programs to ensure that children are immunized to minimize the gap. The government should also provide the required equipment for the health practitioners to ensure that immunization takes place promptly (Alexander et al. 2015, pp.1256-1269). The department of health must always ensure that they collaborate with the program to visit the communities and offer their services.
The government should also create new opportunities for non-hospital programs since they play a vital role in immunization and other related issues. This opportunity will be able to give the program a chance to serve the community with the aim of enhancing communication resources to improve immunization for Aboriginal individuals (Munoz 2018, p.436). It is crucial for the government to recognize their efforts and support them in any way that they can. The program collaborates with other government agencies to provide vaccination to the Aboriginal individuals.
Existing and future policy
The NSW Aboriginal Immunization Health Care Worker Program creates an opportunity for individuals to showcase their skills in immunization. The program has a system which ensures that there is a conducive environment for its workers regardless of religion or skin color.  The plan has also formulated comprehensive immunization methods for their workforce that makes sure that the community is aware of the advantages of immunization and the effects if the Aboriginal individuals are not immunized The workers of the program must be assessed individually regarding competence and knowledge. The program also allocates funds for immunization which encompasses the screening and vaccination of staff according to the recommended standard outlined in the Australian Immunization Handbook.
The program creates a policy that will always articulate before employment, the vaccines that will be given by the health service and those vaccines that are suggested to the general public but are the responsibility of the worker to access. The program also takes reasonable steps to ensure that the Aboriginal individuals are protected from preventable illnesses. It also focuses on executing pre-employment with an ongoing occupational vaccine program to ensure that their protection is maintained. The policy indicates that workers should comply with the program for screening, education and vaccination program (Wardle and Adams 2014 pp.409-422).
The workers must always be aware of protective measures that should be utilized for example safety needles, personal protective and equipment. The program should also be responsible for the execution and maintenance of adequate training, screening, and immunization as suggested in Screening and Immunization Program. The policy also ensures that all workers are given appropriate data, training and pre and post-serology information to make all reasonable actions about vaccination and screening (Summons and Regan 2016, p 13-30). This encompasses the effects of the results in regards to screening and the essence of informing events regarding immunization. The policy makes the screening and immunization procedure available to existing staff together with the new staff on the beginning employment. The program must also inform all locum clinical personnel of the policy requirements directive and the need to give evidence of protection against specific diseases (Macartney et al. 2015, pp.1412-1417).
Potential medical error
This program faces some challenges in regards to medical errors. Furthermore, the workers can forget to record the date of a reminder, the vaccination type. This means that the staff can write a wrong memo on the medical software or line error on the prescription assistance software and fail to record the next immunization to be done.  The staff can also administer the wrong vaccine hence affecting the individual in a long time. Also, when the vaccine is being delivered, the team might deliver it in the wrong way leading to long-term effects (Omer and Halabi 2016, p.223). Sometimes there can be errors in intervals between doses for a vaccination program. The patient can also bring a vaccine given by another health expert or handed over in by a chemist in advance. The staff can also forget to provide a written record of the previous vaccine which will hinder the process of immunization.
Legislation impacting the field of healthcare
The program that is associated with immunization should train its personnel to achieve their objectives. This is essential because it will enhance immunization activities which will help in reducing the space between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. The program must always ensure that there is enough personnel and resources needed for immunization (Crawford et al. 2016 pp.2662-2665). The funds will assist them to reach as many people as they target in the community. The workers should ensure that the rules of the program to avoid indiscipline cases while providing healthcare services.
Quality and Safety
Quality and safety are vital for both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal individuals. It is essential for the program to provide quality health care services.  The program complies with the National Health Standards to enhance the safety of both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal individuals. It obeys standard one by making sure that the workers of the program undergo full training concerning immunization and also outlining systems that guide them in regards to serving the patients (Forbes et al. 2015, pp.2895-2903). It sets methods that enhance the safety and information gathered for future execution of the plan. This means that the workers of the program have the necessary knowledge and skills in their area of expertise. Plans are put in place to help the victims who are at risk of not comprehending their rights in regards to and analyze and report on incidences. The program also has procedures are in place to assist the workforce to recognize and address claims. Furthermore, it has quality and safety education and training for personal and professional development. There are also mechanisms to identify victims at increased risk of harm (Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards 2012).
 There is also open communication with the hospital and non-hospital workforce to make sure that the rights of the patient are safeguarded. The New South Wales Aboriginal Immunization Health Care Worker Program also respects standard two by ensuring that the community is consulted when the organization is being assessed so that safety can be maintained. The victims are also necessitated in the program by talking about problems that they encounter with practitioners to improve its coherency. The consumers are assisted by health service by this organization to engage actively in the enhancement of the victim experience and victim outcome situation. The consumers also get information in regards to health service of the organization’s attainment and add to the monitoring, measurement, and assessment of attainment for endless quality enhancement. Victims’ participation of the victims creates the basis of a scope of national and jurisdictional health plans and programs   (Reyes et al.2017, pp.345-352).
 The program makes sure that there is training for the patients which assist them to offer their partnership to attain the programs aim responsibly. Furthermore, the program observes standard three in implementing plans that will support in the prevalence of diseases caused by not being immunized. The program protects people from being infected by preventable illnesses that can have adverse effects in their lives. They do this by creating plans that have a direct benefit to the patients. Additionally, victims who have acquired infections are identified quickly and receive the necessary treatment and management. The program develops and executes strategies for prevention and control of healthcare.   It also ensures that healthcare facilities and related settings are clean and hygienic and the equipment and instruments meet the present practice guidelines. They also communicate with the victims about information on immunization associated with infections.
In conclusion, the New South Wales Aboriginal Immunization Care Program focuses on communication materials to improve immunization for Aboriginal people. The program promotes respect and treats people fairly without prejudice. The program has policies that guide the workers to enhance the quality and safety of the patient in Australia.
Alexander, K.E., Brijnath, B. and Mazza, D., 2015. Parents’ decision making and access to preventive healthcare for young children: applying A ndersen’s M odel. Health Expectations, 18(5), pp.1256-1269.
Anon, Immunisation Programs – Immunisation programs. Handling of bodies by funeral directors during an influenza pandemic – Fact sheets. Available at: [Accessed October 1, 2018].
Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care, National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards (September 2012). Sydney. ACSQHC, 2012.
Crawford, N.W., Hodgson, K., Gold, M., Buttery, J., Wood, N. and AEFI-CAN network, 2016. Adverse events following HPV immunization in Australia: Establishment of a clinical network. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 12(10), pp.2662-2665.
Dunne, E.M., Carville, K., Riley, T.V., Bowman, J., Leach, A.J., Cripps, A.W., Murphy, D., Jacoby, P. and Lehmann, D., 2016. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children in Western Australia carry different serotypes of pneumococci with different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Pneumonia, 8(1), p.15.
Forbes, T.A., McMinn, A., Crawford, N., Leask, J. and Danchin, M., 2015. Vaccination uptake by vaccine-hesitant parents attending a specialist immunization clinic in Australia. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 11(12), pp.2895-2903.
Hall, K.K., Chang, A.B., Anderson, J., Arnold, D., Otim, M. and O’Grady, K.A.F., 2018. Health service utilisation amongst urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged younger than 5 years registered with a primary health?care service in South?East Queensland. Journal of paediatrics and child health.
Macartney, K.K., Gidding, H.F., Trinh, L., Wang, H., McRae, J., Crawford, N., Gold, M., Kynaston, A., Blyth, C., Yvonne, Z. and Elliott, E., 2015. Febrile seizures following measles and varicella vaccines in young children in Australia. Vaccine, 33(11), pp.1412-1417.
McAullay, D., McAuley, K., Marriott, R., Pearson, G., Jacoby, P., Ferguson, C., Geelhoed, E., Coffin, J., Green, C., Sibosado, S. and Henry, B., 2016. Improving access to primary care for Aboriginal babies in Western Australia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials, 17(1), p.82.
Munoz, F.M., 2018. Current Challenges and Achievements in Maternal Immunization Research. Frontiers in immunology, 9, p.436.
Omer, S.B. and Halabi, S.F., 2016. Evidence, Strategies, and Challenges for Assuring Vaccine Availability, Efficacy, and Safety. Global Management of Infectious Disease After Ebola, p.223.
Raman, S., Ruston, S., Irwin, S., Tran, P., Hotton, P. and Thorne, S., 2017. Taking culture seriously: Can we improve the developmental health and well?being of Australian Aboriginal children in out?of?home care?. Child: care, health and development, 43(6), pp.899-905.
Reyes, J.F., Wood, J.G., Beutels, P., Macartney, K., McIntyre, P., Menzies, R., Mealing, N. and Newall, A.T., 2017. Beyond expectations: Post-implementation data shows rotavirus vaccination is likely cost-saving in Australia. Vaccine, 35(2), pp.345-352.
Sibthorpe, B., Agostino, J., Coates, H., Weeks, S., Lehmann, D., Wood, M., Lannigan, F. and McAullay, D., 2017. Indicators for continuous quality improvement for otitis media in primary health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 23(1), pp.1-9.
Summons, P. and Regan, B., 2016. Social impact of big data in australian healthcare. Les Cahiers du numérique, 12(1), pp.13-30.
Thornton, R.B., Kirkham, L.A.S., Corscadden, K.J., Wiertsema, S.P., Fuery, A., Jones, B.J., Coates, H.L., Vijayasekaran, S., Zhang, G., Keil, A. and Richmond, P.C., 2017. Australian Aboriginal children with otitis media have reduced antibody titres to specific nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae vaccine antigens. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, pp.CVI-00556.
Wardle, J.J.L. and Adams, J., 2014. Indirect and non-health risks associated with complementary and alternative medicine use: An integrative review. European Journal of Integrative Medicine, 6(4), pp.409-422.
Yang, Y.T. and Studdert, D.M., 2017. Linking immunization status and eligibility for welfare and benefits payments: The Australian “No Jab, No Pay” Legislation. Jama, 317(8), pp.803-804.

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