ITC571 Emerging Technologies And Innovation

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ITC571 Emerging Technologies And Innovation

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ITC571 Emerging Technologies And Innovation

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Course Code: ITC571
University: Charles Sturt University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

Discuss about the Use of IoT in RFID System.

The RFID or “Radio Frequency Identification” devices are the wireless microchips that are utilized to tag objects for the automated identification (Ip, 2014).  The following study delivers the insight of the use of IoT or “Internet of Things” in the RFID system developing an in-depth “Capstone Project Plan and Proposal”.
The study provides the rationale, problem domain, the purpose and justification and supervisor or sponsor recommendation. Here an online survey is discussed to be done on the employees of LEAPIN Digital Keys, a popular organization in Australia.  It also includes the research questions, conceptual framework, and methods for research and system development, data collection systems, ethical issues and data analysis.
Rationale, domain and research questions:
The IoT proponents have been pointing towards the connected home as the utmost application. The RFID has been an automated technology aiding computers and machines for recognizing objects, recording the metadata and controlling the individual targets via the radio waves (Amendola et al., 2014). Through connecting the RFID reader with the Internet’s terminal, the readers are able to identify, monitor and track the object. These objects have been tagged in real time, automatically and globally. This is the IoT. Thus RFID has been seen as the necessity for the IoT.
Problem domain:
RFID have not been managing to become pervasive enough. There have been still various challenges arising before IoT could develop and reach the maturity. The research results till now have been feeding into the innovations. A series of components have been available that could be exploited useful and developed by the market (Seo et al., 2017). However there have been still various challenges regarding how the applications of IoT would be developed and deployed on the support of research and innovation. The issues have been technical in nature and have been not leant regarding the interoperability, discoverability, complex integration, reliability and security (Hua et al., 2013). Moreover, standardization has been playing a vital role here. The other challenges have been related to acceptability of the application of the IoT by the citizens and the users.
Purpose and justification:
The maturing RFID technology along with the falling expenses and the anticipation of the integration of IoT has been assimilated. This has been for boosting both the expansion and adoption of the current deployments (Naskar, Basu & Sen, 2017). The RFID has been exploding in terms of growth. The integration of RFID with the IoT has been occurring gradually. The primary thing with the IoT has been that it has been going to occur in a particular date. It has been growing till the people make sense of their systems more effectively (Vikram, 2016). As they undergo trail implementations, the adoption would increase.
Sponsor or Supervisor recommendation:
The sponsors must possess a tight setting of guidelines regarding sponsorship making them clearly available. This must enhance the proposal that never gets matched clearly. The project must also trip up the seekers of sponsorship who have not been interested in imparting their effort for meeting the project needs. For the proposals and the request letters received, there could be areas where it might be unclear that the project has not been prepared according to guidelines, or wrong for the technology. The sponsorship managers must stop the reading there and send email for resubmitting the more proper proposal customized to their needs.
Research Questions:
The research questions for the proposal should include the following:

What have been the barriers to implement RFID in today’s world?
Are there any concerns regarding the privacy of the clients?
Has the technology been seemed to be secure enough?
Has the RFID been bringing sufficient benefits?
Has the standardization proceeded enough?
Are there any doubts regarding the maturity of this technology?

Conceptual or Theoretical Framework:
The following diagram illustrates the framework that has been joining the concepts of implementation of IoT in RFID systems. First of all the organizations need to develop and improve their information systems. The information system has been complemented by the RFID provided by the IoT that has been structured in three levels. They are the topology, architecture and platform.

Figure 1: “The conceptual framework showing the IoT in RFID”
(Source: Kypus,  Vojtech & Kvarda, 2015, pp. 21-25)
For this research an online survey is to be conducted. A questionnaire has to be set up through Google forms that are to be distributed to LEAPIN Digital Keys, a popular organization in Australia. The company has been developing the smart-locks, controlled by the Smartphone. This helps in using the digital keys enabling the users in controlling who could access the locks at a particular time. There has been much value in their services and systems with the necessity to gather filter and then critically create profitable and automated decisions with that information. Thus they have been needed to use IoT for their RFID technologies. The employees in LEAPIN Digital Keys need to answer the questions from where the feedback is to be retrieved.
Research and Systems Development method:
The research and system development method to be followed must fall roughly under the post-positivist school. This must include the quantitative data analysis. This would help to examine the deductive hypothesis that is to be refined over the course of collection, analyzing and interpreting the research data.
Data collection methods:
For the proposal the quantitative data collection method is to be followed. For this an online questionnaire is to be created as discussed above. These data must deal with the values, numbers and quantities. This would make them measurable. In this way they have been generally expressed in number format. Examples of quantitative data include the duration, price amount sixe and length. The usage of statistics for generating and then subsequently assessing the kind of data would ass credibility and the credence to it. Hence, quantitative data has been recognized to be more objective and reliable.
Ethical Issues:
The ethical issues must consider that any research participant must not be subjected to any kind of harm in any manner. The respect for dignity of the research participants must be prioritized. Complete consent must be retrieved from the participants before the study. The privacy protection of the research participants must be ensured. Enough level of the research data confidentiality must be assured. The anonymity of the company and the individuals in this research is to be assured. Any deception or any kind of exaggeration regarding the objectives and aims of the research should be avoided. The affiliations of any kind, sources of the funding and the possible conflicts of the interests should be declared. Any type of communication regarding the research must be done with transparency and honesty. Lastly any kind of misleading information and denotation of the findings of the primary data in biased manner should be avoided.
Compliance Requirements:
It must be kept in mind that every registration for the project has been up to date. The project approach must be renewed as any types of feedbacks are needed to be retrieved from the particular company. The privacy of the participants must be secured by the complying with the governmental, state and national privacy laws. Before starting the project a legal advice is to be seeking from the specialist advisers and the solicitors.
Analysis of data:
It has been simpler to create any online survey and distribute that to the participants. However the analyzing of the outcomes has been a tricky job. There have been four primary methods to gather the responses. The data types to confront while analyzing the outcomes of the survey are ratio data, interval data, ordinal data and categorical data.
Project Plan:
The first phase of the research would be the research in the statement of the use of IoT in RFID technology along with establishing the research methodology and completing administrative requirements with defining few initial and general hypotheses. Next there must be technology and literature review establishing a more in depth definition of use of IoT in RFID, the conceptual framework and the variable affecting the analysis and the interpretation of the research problem. In the next phase the research must generate and collect the data using the quantitative methods. Lastly the data retrieved and gathered in the last phase must be assessed and interpreted. It must be found out whether the operational and general hypothesis is supported or refuted. On the basis of the analysis the last thesis must be drafted. This should frame the research findings as some common rules and principles.
The study will obtain the clear quantification of the scopes at every part of the market and supply chain. They must become aware of the performance of IoT in RFID, developing roadmaps and the applicable market identity of them. IoT can use RFID for achieving the sharing and exchange of data. This is an important means through the open network if computer systems.
The technical approaches for enhancing the RFID privacy must include the Pseudonym rotation, Personal Simulator or Proxy for RFID, the “Blocker” Tag, Polite Blocking and Cryptography.
The software codes include the UHF, HF, LF, 2.45GHz passive RFID and the Active RFID Real Time Locating Systems (RTLS). Moreover the Ultra Wide Band (UWB), the Near Field Communications (NFC), Cards, Battery Assisted Passive (BAP), Printed RFID, Chipless, RFID Bluetooth and Zigbee should also be considered.

Figure 2: “The required Work Breakdown Structure”
(Source: Created by Author)
Risk analysis:
The risk analysis is demonstrated through the following table:

The sector of risks

Possible ways to mitigate

Intelligence gathering:
This involves the gathering of data followed by the risk assessment for identifying the assets needed to be protected and their values.

The threats are to be defined and the adversary types ate to be encountered.

Details of the participant:
This includes the location of the participant, history, and other current protective measures.

A structured process is to follow undertaking the survey from the key employees, insurance assessors and crime prevention officers.

Site walk through, or the survey:
This involves the physical vulnerabilities, present security measures and their conditions. 

The process needs to account the people, processes and the technologies needing the integration to meet the aims.

The task takes duration of about 65 days staring from the creation of survey form to implementing the plan.
Gantt chart:

Task Name





Analysis of use of IoT in RFID system

65 days

Mon 7/24/17

Fri 10/20/17


   Survey Form created

6 days

Mon 7/24/17

Mon 7/31/17


   Form distrbuted

5 days

Wed 8/2/17

Tue 8/8/17


   Survey Analysis

7 days

Wed 8/9/17

Thu 8/17/17


   Future Analysis

9 days

Fri 8/18/17

Wed 8/30/17


   Developing Future project plan

12 days

Thu 8/31/17

Fri 9/15/17


   Implementing the plan

25 days

Mon 9/18/17

Fri 10/20/17


Figure 2: “The Gantt Chart”
(Source: Created by Author)
Amendola, S., Lodato, R., Manzari, S., Occhiuzzi, C., & Marrocco, G. (2014). RFID technology for IoT-based personal healthcare in smart spaces. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1(2), 144-152.
Ciftler, B. S., Kadri, A., & Guvenc, I. (2017). IoT Localization for Bistatic Passive UHF RFID Systems with 3D Radiation Pattern. IEEE Internet of Things Journal.
Gope, P., Amin, R., Islam, S. H., Kumar, N., & Bhalla, V. K. (2017). Lightweight and privacy-preserving RFID authentication scheme for distributed IoT infrastructure with secure localization services for smart city environment. Future Generation Computer Systems.
Hua, M. C., Peng, G. C., Lai, Y. J., & Liu, H. C. (2013, August). Angle of arrival estimation for passive UHF RFID tag backscatter signal. In Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom), 2013 IEEE and Internet of Things (iThings/CPSCom), IEEE International Conference on and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (pp. 1865-1869). IEEE.
Ip, W. H. (2014). RFID/IOT applications and case study in a smart city.
Kang, Y. S., Park, I. H., Rhee, J., & Lee, Y. H. (2016). MongoDB-based repository design for IoT-generated RFID/sensor big data. IEEE Sensors Journal, 16(2), 485-497.
Kim, T. H., Lee, B. H., Park, B. K., Choi, S. P., Moon, Y. S., Jung, J. W., … & Choi, H. R. (2015). Active IP-RFID System for Maritime Logistics. The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences, 40(12), 2511-2519.
Kypus, L., Vojtech, L., & Kvarda, L. (2015, July). Qualitative and security parameters inside middleware centric heterogeneous RFID/IoT networks, on-tag approach. In Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP), 2015 38th International Conference on (pp. 21-25). IEEE.
Naskar, S., Basu, P., & Sen, A. K. (2017). A Literature Review of the Emerging Field of IoT Using RFID and Its Applications in Supply Chain Management. In The Internet of Things in the Modern Business Environment(pp. 1-27). IGI Global.
Occhiuzzi, C., Manzari, S., Amendola, S., & Marrocco, G. (2017, March). RFID sensing breadboard for industrial IoT. In Applied Computational Electromagnetics Society Symposium-Italy (ACES), 2017 International (pp. 1-3). IEEE.
Seo, D. S., Kang, M. S., & Jung, Y. G. (2017). The Developement of Real-time Information Support Cart System based on IoT. The International Journal of Advanced Smart Convergence, 6(1), 44-49.
Vikram, N. (2016, March). Design of ISM band RFID reader antenna for IoT applications. In Wireless Communications, Signal Processing and Networking (WiSPNET), International Conference on (pp. 1818-1821). IEEE.

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