INFO 731 Managing Health Informatics Projects

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INFO 731 Managing Health Informatics Projects

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INFO 731 Managing Health Informatics Projects

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Course Code: INFO731
University: Drexel University

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Country: United States

Questions:

1) Attack or defend the following: “With growing complexity and costs, a new and better collaboration is needed among various healthcare providers, patients, and the family and friends of the patients. Enabling this collaboration will require true life-long learning for all of the groups and mechanisms to facilitate communication and informed decision making. This is where computing and informatics can play a major role in healthcare improvement.”
2) When so many people focus on cost of smartphones, computers, and tablet and appear to ignore the total cost of ownership, the cost to train those who use them and support them until they can realize the benefits even in time of stress and overload, as well as the impact and consequences of viruses, malware, and data theft, what do you believe healthcare providers should do to properly evaluate alternative solutions and why?
3) Consider a major change in your professional life (or the life of someone you know). To what extent do you feel the change was well conceived and handled as a well-managed project as outline in Chapter 4? Think about each of the major aspects of the project raised in the chapter as you reflect on the change. Attack or defend the notion that the process outlined in Chapter 4 is generically wise and should be at the heart of major changes in the domain of healthcare.
4) It is common for organizations to invest in training workers during major process changes, but the amount of training given to support the organization’s processes and procedures, especially to recent hires, declines over time. Attack or defend the notion that any organization that claims to be above average must carefully ensure that newcomers are successfully transformed to perform in ways that are consistent with the values, processes, and procedures of the organization before they are assigned regular duties.
5) Attack or defend the following statement and then explain what you would do, in concrete terms, to improve things in your involvement or what you have observed. “It seems that the people behind the new computerized systems perceive that the people who work here and the roles they play are to make the computer’s job easier as opposed to the systems being here to help transform average healthcare workers into super workers.”
6) It has been argued that getting nursing involved in the implementation of all of the computer systems in healthcare is a good thing, but doing that is in conflict with current patient care and the reality that many nurses are uncomfortable with some of the changes they see and would rather not be involved. To what extend does this resonate with your personal experience? What do you believe are the key prerequisites that must be addressed before enough of the right nurses and other key role players in the healthcare process and what concrete steps would you recommend to address these and why?
7) Chapter 5 in the text provides a perspective for implementing Clinical Information Systems. From your experience, what are the more critical issues or concerns you have with the material presented in this chapter and what would you advocate should be done to improve the likelihood that such projects would be successful. (You can address technical issues, skill issues, change and fear issues, as well as business and/or leadership issues.)
8) Chapter 6 focuses on the Electronic Medical Records and physician adoption and utilization. Reflect on your experiences with physicians and other key, scarce, and therefore costly healthcare professionals. How well do you believe these professionals would react to the kinds of changes and approaches covered in the chapter. Have the authors done a good job addressing the really key issues and concerns? If not what did they miss? To what extend do you believe what is advocated would work in your environment or healthcare facilities with which you are familiar? Sketch what you might propose be done differently, if anything.
9) Advocates of computers and these online systems speak about the benefits in glowing terms, but few seem to address the changes in workflow and the impact on production during the time it takes to learn and then become skilled at using these systems. Healthcare workers are being asked to do more in less time under the justification that the computer will speed the process. Describe your personal experience with automation and new information systems. How true are the claims about the benefits and the impact on the professionals? (e.g. Did the system turn a world-class healthcare worker into a data entry clerk?)
10) How often are the challenges the authors discuss on page 195 and 196 actually issues? If you were to rewrite that section, what challenges would you include? Be concrete and give examples.
11) Perform a critique of the three case studies from Chapter 8. How believable are these case studies and the results? What are the key lessons you took away from these case studies and why? (None is an acceptable answer, but you must be explicit about what you found troubling and/or unbelievable about each.
12) Do research to see what has been reported about the longer-term result from these three case studies and write about what you discover. If you are unable to find anything for any of the three, explore the issue of long-term healthcare worker satisfaction with such solutions and see how that data compares to what you found from the case studies.
13) Patient stays in the hospital are being reduced for any number of reasons, but that does not mean the patients should not be monitored. In your opinion, identify no more than four new real-time devices you believe are crucial for a large enough pool of patients that every patient should be tethered to them, both in the hospital and at home during recuperation and rehabilitation. Explain your rationale and provide evidence.
14) Explain how data analytics leads to improved outcomes from both what you have read and from any personal experiences you can share.
15) In combat aviation, the concept of situational awareness and data fusion is critical. Attack or defend the notion that healthcare providers need similar kinds of data fusion to provide a more robust patient situational awareness, especially in situations of noisy and conflicting data.
16) Explain the key concepts behind six sigma analytics and explain why or why such approaches should not be used. Explain and support your position.
17) From your personal experiences with healthcare workflows as a professional (if possible, else as a patient) and from the lessons you have been learning from this course, do you see the adoption of information technology as having been a smooth and graceful experience or a turbulent and sometimes painful one? Dig more deeply into your experiences and point to what you believe were the most critical contributors to the success or the causes of problems with the adoption. Be specific and support your position with references.
18) Based on your reflective analysis in question 1, which do you believe is a larger problem, lack of enough information or information overload? What evidence do you have to support your position?
19) Attack or defend the following assertion: “While it is true that a very small fraction of the population accounts for a significantly large fraction of total costs (e.g. “hot spots”), many of the root causes for these conditions have taken years if not decades to develop and to eliminate these hot spots will require significant life style changes, some with strong cultural reinforcements, long before the symptoms appear.” Support your position with solid evidence.
20) You have been brought in to help a regional hospital implement a major informatics upgrade that promises to significantly improve efficiency and patient outcomes. Leadership is nervous due to concerns that many of the “older” professionals will resist these changes. What strategy would you employ to maximize the probability of success with this new adoption effort? Explain the underlying rationale and support your position with evidence.
21) From your reading of the textbook, identify a success attributed to informatics in the text. Follow up on the success and see if it continued, led to even better improvements or was short term in nature. Summarize your findings and support them with new evidence.
22) Reflect on what you have learned about decision support and the kind of work you do or want to do. What does decision support mean to you? What kinds of decisions can big data and data mining and analytics help you make? Given examples and support your claims with sold credible evidence.
23) Identify a new aspect of big data and data mining that is interesting to you. Explain the concept and how it might bring value to healthcare. Support your claims and provide evidence.
24) With the increase of BLOGs come an increase is trolling and publishing falsehoods for personal gain. How does data mining and big data deal with false information? Explain and support your answer with credible sources.

Answers:

1)
The following answer to the above question would be in defense of the subject mentioned. The question lies about whether or not informatics and computing play a major role in improving the quality of operations in healthcare. The answer would depict in defense of the subject matter.  
Computing and informatics can be considered as a better way of handling the otherwise complicated working structure of the healthcare industry involving the patient data and handling the collaborations between various healthcare providers, patients, and their family and friends. This is because; the technology controlling the computing and informatics are guided by web platforms, analytical software, data storage systems and numerous others help in making the complex structure of healthcare operations easier. The computing and informatics system provide critical information amongst a pile load of raw data generated everyday in the healthcare industry, whereas it also helps in speedy broadcasting of information.
It has also been found that though there had been initial criticism about the technology implementation, the vast amount of productivity that informatics and computing has provided resulted in the prompt adaptation of the technology into the healthcare industry and its operations. The implementation has also resulted in effective decision making in the industry as all the necessary data was readily available given the speed of the implemented technology.
2)
The data flow in healthcare industry is found to be of enormous amounts each day. The technology has enabled accessing these data through various connecting devices, like the Smartphone, computers and others. However, the ownership value is often found to be disregarded in this matter. It is often found that data has been mishandled when there has been an issue of overload of data or an impending stress factor working behind. In addition, there have been incidences of malicious hacking and virus attacks to breach the intricate and confidential data that have been generated.
However, there have been protective measures introduced in the healthcare industry that has helped in offering a protective measure for the data overflow and breach incidents. It has been found that the EHR machines that record patient data along with their personal information is mostly vulnerable to these kinds of threats. Tools have been implemented to protect devices from being defenseless against malwares and virus attacks. Since 2015, the patients have also been given access to personal healthcare information management so that they can view and protect their personal data which would be inaccessible to any unauthorized user for the presence of passwords and protections. In addition, there are strict laws implemented that enables the healthcare providers to mandatorily use protective measures and tools. Furthermore, the industry had been training the workforce for handling the generated data and maintaining its dignity.
3)
According to the outline described in Chapter 4, there have been changes implemented in the working structure of nurses in their professional life. Since, the amount of data generated within the healthcare industry has been huge and the amount increases exponentially every passing day, it has been found that it is humanely impossible to perform any task with these generated data without making an error.
The changes that have been introduced in the profession of nurses were well conceived, therefore, the following topic would be discussed in favor of the changes. Of course, it had changed the manual way in which nurses used to perform their day to day task, but it had reduced the errors that occurred in the handling of data. Mostly, the data breach and mishandling has been found in the Electronic Health Record or EHR systems, therefore to handle the data generated by these machines, Clinical Information Systems or CIS has been implemented. This forms the foundation of the EHR systems. The change has brought about proper management of data and has been effective in finding out the system faults. In addition, it has provided the healthcare industry with clear documentation, accessing of data in real-time, order execution in time and consistency in operations maintaining the best quality. Thus it can easily be said that the changes in the profession of nurses, as depicted in Chapter 4, have only improved the operations in healthcare industry and reduced the occurrence of errors.
4)
Any changes in the major working process of any industry requires the existing and newcomer workforces to be trained impeccably well to the new system so that occurrence of errors are less. More errors force the fail of the system with gradual decline of work quality over time. In addition, it decreases the quality of work in the healthcare industry and the organizations associated with them (Evans, 2015). Training the workforce happens to be one of the primary strategies that help in adapting any change in industrial processes in a proper way. The notion thus works in favor of the discussed issue of training workforces to the latest adoption of technology.
This does not include the training of only existing workforce but also the newcomers that handle the introduction of a newer process. For example, the implementation of the CIS process in handling EHR by the nurses has to be trained to just not the existing nurses but also the nurses that are introduced recently in the industry. This helps in maintaining the dignity of the processes as well as the value of the processes, also to the recent entrants during the organization procedures before they are assigned with the regular duties.
5)
In the recent time it has been seen that the people who are behind the computer technology thinks that the people working in the computer are providing the computer help to do its job in easier way but they do not think that the computerized system rather provide the help to the health care system to transform. By using the computerized system the workers that are average can do some serious works beyond their capability. If I was behind the computerized system then I would take help from the computer to provide better performance in the healthcare system. For individual purpose I can improve my own knowledge and skills by using the computerized system. I would like to involve more with the system and observe that how the health care workers are doing their job using the computerized system and how the computer system making the average workers into super workers. I can say that the workers are not helping the computer for doing their job easily rather the computers are providing the support to the workers of the health care for doing their job more efficiently and effectively.
6)
The involvement of the nurse in the health care system is a good thing as it enhances the effectiveness of the system. The nursing is an essential clinical input which is required for the success of the automation system in the health care process. In 1992, the Department of Clinical informatics of New Jersey has seen the success of including the nurses in development process of the healthcare information system (Hanin, & Kessler, 2015). However, it has been said that the involvement f the nurses may lead to the conflict with the current patient care. Some of them may not feel to get involved in the development process. These issues may be raised in some cases. Some of the nurses feel that the main objective of the nurses is the caring of the patients which is being neglected due to the involvement in the process.
However, this problem can be solved through the selection of the right nursing candidate in the development process. The main objective of involving the nurses in the health care system is that their opinions and the observations about the conditions and consequences in the medical care can be treated as the valuable input. The professional back ground of the nursing staff along with the experience can become the selection criteria before selecting the nursing staff for the involvement. The involved nursing staff should hold the American Nurses Credentialing Center certification, and the project management certification. The selected staff should have the knowledge about the common skill of nursing practice. All theses knowledge will help the selected candidate to contribute effectively in the development of the project regarding health care sector. The knowledge about the basic of the nursing will help to give them the valuable inputs on the other hand knowledge about the project management will help them to understand and cooperate with ongoing project.
7)
In chapter 5, the perspective of the implementation of the Clinical information System has been discussed. The discussion covers the various perspectives like involvement of the physicians and the nurses in the development of the system and considering both the business and clinical perspective of the proposed system. However, there are certain issues like privacy and the security of the proposed system are not covered in a large scale. The privacy and the security of the system can be regarded as the technical issues. The information the proposed information system is sensitive and confidential. Hence the security of the system is needed to be maintained in a proper way (Fortino et al., 2015).  To enhance the usefulness and improvement of the system the encryption of the data, and usage of the passwords for accessing the contents in the system can be implemented. The accessibility of the content can be restricted for users of different level.
The issues regarding the skill of handling the system may arise. In this case, this problem can be solved by giving the proper training to the staffs. Apart from that the staffs may feel that the change in the system will reduce the value of their professional skill. The administrative can take initiatives to bring down these wrong concepts and can spread awareness about the good impact of the health care information system.
The business perspective has been described in a proper way in this chapter. However, the discussion says about the participation of the project manager and the physician for the leadership of the project. The conflict between these two leaders can be happened. In this case, the management needs to resolve the problem in a proper way.
8)
The electronic health acre record and its adaptation results the well managed workflow and provides the flexible health care system for the patients. The electronic health care information system will manage and record the data centrally. These health care records can be accessed by the medical care providers and the doctors. Another advantage of this electronic healthcare is that it will reduce the cost of the medical services and the fees of the doctors. Some of the expensive medical professionals are not interested to join in this electronic medical record system. However, majority of the physicians and the medical providers are willing to join in electronic medical record system as the system is flexible to use and availability of the system is high (Gu wt al., 2017).
In most of the cases it is expected that most of the professional medical professionals and the physicians will appreciate this facility. Apart for that the pharmaceutical   companies are also willing to collaborate with this system.
The key issues in this system are discussed under the section named challenges.  The issues covered by the author are the legal issues regarding the use of the electronic medical information system and challenges regarding the knowledge translation. These two issues are the significant issues for the implementation of the electronic health information system. However, there are other issues regarding this context. One of the important issues is security and the privacy issue, technical issues which were not mentioned by the author in this context.
The discussed electronic healthcare management systems will effective help to bring the flexibility in the current healthcare system. The availability of the system will make the patient to reach to the doctors any time of the data through online. Apart from that patient health records can be accessed through online, so there are a little chances of the loss of those records.
9)
The use of the advanced technology along with the computers and the online system in the healthcare sectors has brought certain benefits. The healthcare sectors are using the data mining and data analysis in order to identify the flaws in the process. The managing of the data and the, enhancement of the production and positive changes in the workflow brings the changes in the processing system of the health care sector. However, there are certain issues arise in the context of application of the advanced technology in this sector. The use of the technology in a proper way needs the training of the staffs who are handling the system. In this case, the staffs in the healthcare sector are required to do more work in less time. It has been argued that the automation and the implementation of the advanced technology delivers flexible system, however, the healthcare staffs are not getting the chance to show the desired skill as  in most of the cases the automated process needs the entry of data in a correct way to operate in a right way.
It can be said from the experience that the automation in the health care system has helped in managing the data and the information processing in an effective way. This application has enhanced the accountability and the flexibility of the whole system. The new technologies like data mining and the data analysis has provided the limitations and the opportunities for the healthcare sector. However, from the observation it can be said that the claim about turning of the world health care worker is turning into the clerk is not acceptable. The decision making process form the information used by the automated system need the sound knowledge of healthcare sector. In order to operate the automated system technical knowledge is needed which can be gained from the training, however, understanding the processed data needs the knowledge of the healthcare sector.
10)
There are certain issues discussed by the author in order in the health care information technology. Some of these issues are the cost issues, lack of resources (Reddy et al., 2015). The community hospitals are using the advanced technology which has the focus on the overall improvement of the system. However, it has been seen that the use of the advanced technology is increasing the cost of the medical services. Some of the hospitals are also facing the lack of resources which is leading to the degradation of the health care service.
In case, if there is a chance to rewrite this section some other issues can be included along with the discussed issue.  Some of these issues are the security issue, and the technical issue. The breaching of the security in the system can lead to the leak of the information. On the other hand technical issues can be raised due to the managing of the large information system.
11)
The case studies described in the discussion is reliable and is effective for achieving the adjective. The physician led informatics system helps to identify the areas of improvement and involve physicians and consumers to involve in the improvement of the system (Arias, Wilgus & Wickramasinghe, 2015). The implementation of the physician led informatics has helped to reduce the cost of the medical bills. Apart from that the feedback system in the process has helped to improve different areas of modification of the system. Integrated information shared services has helped Trinity Health to gain the desired transparency.
Clinical Adverse Drug Event (ADE) Alert System helps to determine the medical error and the usage of drugs. Many hospitals have their own system in order to detect ADE.
All the initiatives taken in those case studies are effective. However, implementation of the ADE alert system is troublesome, as in some cases usage of the adverse drugs is needed to prescribe.
12)
The long term effect of the systems implemented in these three case studies is positive. The use of this technology driven system will help to maintain the following of information in a right way for the health care management system. The data regarding the patients are recorded in the right manner. Transparency in data and managing of the record are done in proper way (Hanina & Kessler, 2015).  The record and the information in the system can be accessed by the medical experts and the physicians can be done easily. The data is stored and managed centrally. This makes the accessibility of the information through all time of the day. The whole system makes the electronic medical record system more flexible and effective.
13)
The patients who are stayed in the hospitals are sometime reduced for many kind of reasons. But it is the responsibility of the hospital and for the healthcare system to monitor the patients continuously. There are several new technologies that are used for the monitoring of the patients. One of the popular tools for the monitoring of the patients is the wireless sensor technology. The wireless technology is replacing the traditional method that uses the wires and the sensors. It mainly uses some wearable device which can be tracked using the internet. Another tool for the patients monitoring is the remote patient monitoring tool (Hersh, 2014). There are many devices that the patients keep within themselves and the doctors and the other worker of the healthcare can tract the health of the patients by remote connection. Another new technology is the implementation of the big data technology. The big data has the ability to track the information of the health of the patients for huge amount of patients’ weather the patients is in the home or in the hospital. Electronic portals of the patients are other tools that the healthcare system is use for the patients monitoring. The above four tools has the high potential and crucial for the patients monitoring.
14)
The data analysis improved the outcomes of the healthcare a lot. The two of the outcomes is the analytics of the self service and another one is the real time patients monitoring using the data analysis. The self-service analytics mainly empowers the health care of the individual employees and the whole enterprise for the analysis of the data of the operation, finance and the clinical. The providence creates the platform for the self-service analytics of the enterprise that named as vantage intentionally to give the permission to any employee of the organization to analyse, monitor and improve the data outcomes that is related to the clinical. Another that the case is studied is the real time analytics increases the productivity. The real time data analytics mainly checks weather the data that is collected is fake or genuine, the data is from this year or the data is already obsolete or not (Aziz et al., 2016). For the proactive healthcare system it is necessary to collect the real time data that improves the treatment of the patients and the data that are related to the health of the patients. As the amount of the data is increased due to the number of the patients increased the big data analysis is used for storing and maintaining the data.
15)
The concept of situational awareness and the data fusion is an important concept in the field of combat aviation. Due to the vast amount of data on the battlefield, often leading data overflow, the process of data collection and data recording is automated. The data collector used in the battlefield might provide different data about same situation as the different data collectors have different characteristics and capability. In order to avoid the data conflict, military uses automated data fusion to combine the data collected from various sources (Frost & Meyerhoff, 2015). The fusion of the data helps to get more robust information about the situation, thus helping in accurate and effective decision making.
In the healthcare sector similar concept should be adopted. The process of manual data collection and recording is not rigorous and often lacks in details which affect the quality of the treatment.  The data providers often fail to infuse most of the data and sometimes simply ignore. The automated data fusion, however, is capable to aggregate the incoming data more accurately and provide context for a particular situation. It will then assist the doctor to analyze the situation more effectively and inform the patient in case of emergency situation. Hence the concept should be incorporated in the healthcare sector, similar to the combat aviation.
16)
Six sigma is a data analytics technique which is based on quantitative approach. It weights the available data resources and then incorporates the some statistical application for the analysis. It also incorporates visual capabilities for monitoring the variation in the process and the efficiencies of the process.
It analyses the data resources associated with several operational process with the help of various statistical technique.  It helps the analyst to determine the acceptance of any practice in terms of performance like whether the practice will create any variance in the performance metrics which is not accepted (Reddy & Aggarwal, 2015).  The technique, for example, has the capability to determine whether there are any tailbacks associated with the network, comprises of the activities of a particular department which might create delay in the generation of report and making it available for the physician for monitoring. The possibility of variance in the healthcare sector is higher than any other sector. The variables are often small but those are not easy to quantify. However, due to the driven approach followed by the sig sigma technique, it improves the measurement of the data and hence helps to deal with the variance in the data. Hence, the approach should be used.
17)
Today, the healthcare sector is closely associated with the information technology with the applications covering a broad portion of the healthcare spectrum. The application can be categorized into four distinct areas namely financial, clinical compliance, quality improvement, patient satisfaction or the marketing. The healthcare sector has witnessed a drastic change along with the introduction of the information technology during the last 15 to 20 years. However, over the years, as the regulations on the sector become significantly loosened, many big companies, with the expectation of high profit on investment, entered the sector and the reimbursement schema become more and more complex. Organizations often find it difficult for getting the accreditation status as it is heavily mandated with regulations and the organization need to fulfill the criteria for the status (Kiranyaz, Ince & Gabbouj, 2016).   The data privacy is another critical issue for the organization that needs to be managed properly for successful acquisition of the technology. In short, the transformation of the healthcare sector with the information technology was never a smooth one.
The key factors that made the information technology successful in the field of healthcare sector are the following:

Effective analysis of the financial data with satisfaction of shareholders and other organizational stakeholders
Effective management of the clinical compliance issues with reduction of risk of complications of certain classes of patients
Quality Improvement in Clinical and Operational Activities and Better customer relationship management

18)
In the contemporary times, the implementation of computing and informatics has channelized the flow of raw data in healthcare industry. Therefore, it can be justified that the primary problem in the industry does not generally lie within the area where there is a lack of enough information but it is generally the other way around. It specifically arises due to the overload of generated information.
The primary problem arises because the population is increasing at an exponential level all around the world, and thus number of patients are also increasing. Quite naturally, the data generated from these patient’s health records are also overflowing day by day (Kudyda, 2016). The primary showcase of evidence in this matter is the EHR system that not only brings out the health records of the patients but also records their personal information. Naturally, this would result in the inflow of huge amount of patient records that are almost beyond the capability of a human being to manage. Therefore, it is evident from the above example that the problem does not lie in lack of evident information but the overflow of generated raw data. Handling this enormous amount of data is what is needed to cope up with the problem.
19)
Due to increase in population, the number of patient is also significantly growing. This is not only increasing the patient data, but the infrastructure to support these data is also getting very complex. This, in turn increases the cost to implement and maintain that infrastructure. This issue is very critical as a small fraction of population contributes to the total costs large fraction. The root causes that has led to the scenario, has developed over the past years and this will take a long time to eliminate (Arias, Wilgus & Wickramasinghe, 2015). One of the primary solutions to this issue can be attributed to the lifestyle changes. If proper lifestyle is followed, it will help to keep the patient number in check. Although, it will take time to witness significant result, the changes must be welcomed. However, it will have positive impact on the issue because health and life style changes are closely associated. A proper and healthy lifestyle is the most cost effective way to prevent the health related issues. It will help to prevent the symptoms long before it appears. It is obvious that if more and more people follow healthy lifestyle, it will be possible to minimize the cost of the healthcare maintenance.
20)
It is always true that people are often resistance to changes as it often throws them out of the comfort zone and demands extra effort to accustom with the changes. The concept is also applicable for the organizational setup. The regional hospital, when upgraded with the modern technologies and infrastructure, has been met with opposition from the professionals belongs to the old school thoughts (Iyengar, Kundu & Pallis, 2018). However, in order to implement the new technology it is important to make the old professional part of the new infrastructure. Although technology is important for make the task easier, the experience of the old professionals is also equally important to make overall improvement. It is not easier to make the old professional part of the change, however it is not impossible. First of all the technologies must be demonstrated to those professional and make them understand the effectiveness of those technologies. The demonstration should also include the difference which the technologies will bring to work procedures. If the technology can help them doing their work better, then it will be easier to compel them   to use the technology with resistance. The process should also include collection of feedback from the professional and make adjustment, as well as improvement to smooth the changes easier for them.
21)
The success factors of the informatics in the healthcare are very crucial. Many ways the informatics are transforming the health care system. Knowledge sharing is one of the informatics that is used for the health care system to get success. There are several reasons that the medicines are refers as the practice and because of the providers of the health care as they are learning this. The patients have the access of their own history of the health and the recommendations. That empowers the patients to take of their health more seriously than before (Raghupathi & Raghupathi, 2014). The patients who have the access to the portal will be able to see the details of their past data of the health. The most important path of the success for the informatics is the improved outcomes. This helps the doctors and the nurses to increase the efficiently, that frees up the time of the health care workers and that decrease the chance of the error. The tasks are became automated that saves lot of time and the money not only for the big hospitals but for the healthcare providers and for the clinics as well.
22)
The constant pressure of increasing productivity prevails within the officials working within the healthcare industry and this happens to be one of the primary reasons for handling data. Therefore, data mining and data analytics are one of the important factors in healthcare industry.  Amongst these raised queries, the big data analysis then helps in making out patterns, which in turn helps in the aggregation of the obtained results. Both data analytics and data mining are important factors in healthcare industry as neither of them has a value without the other (Stoddart & Evans, 2017). Furthermore, both of these factors add tremendous value to the healthcare sector by making out aggregation of data, for example, both these factors help in making out health records of a country. These are tools or set of methodologies that helps in the transformation of raw data into meaningful user information and has also changed the scenario for decision making process in the healthcare industry. The analytics helps in increasing the quality of patient care providing new Healthcare IT solutions. From an EHR perspective, data analytics helps to capture data and convert it into meaningful and useful information and supports businesses to gain visibility and be able to modify the business model according to the industry requirements.
23)
The data generation in the healthcare industry has bombarded in the recent times with the explosive increment in medical databases. Mostly, these data are comprised of the intricate and confidential patient information that has the ability to possess hidden values capable of predicting patterns and trends in them. The absence of big data would mean these data to go completely untapped. Data mining and big data analytics is thus considered to be very important in handling of healthcare data since data mining helps in extraction of generated data and big data analytics help in identifying trends or patterns in it.
In case of data mining, the latest procedure of Knowledge Discovery in Data or KDD is an aspect that might bring value to the healthcare industry (Klerings, Weinhandl &Thaler, 2015). It is an alternate phase that is considered to be a phase somewhere between data processing cycles subsequently used for the refinement of the original raised query.
Amongst these raised queries, the big data analysis then helps in making out patterns, which in turn helps in the aggregation of the obtained results. Both data analytics and data mining are important factors in healthcare industry as neither of them has a value without the other. Furthermore, both of these factors add tremendous value to the healthcare sector by making out aggregation of data, for example, both these factors help in making out health records of a country.
24)
It is a known fact that publishing of false information is at random practice given the latest information technology scenario. This provides all the wrong information that misleads healthcare officials and the further the government of a country. The misleading information often delivers wrong ideals about the present scenario thus to eradicate this issue, data analysis and data mining comes into focus.
CMS or Centers for Medicaid & Medicaid Services had implemented Fraud Prevention Systems in the late 2010 that clamps down various attempts of fraud on the healthcare industry. Big data analytics and data mining help accumulating huge amount of data (Agha, 2014). This in turn deciphers the false information from all of the generated data in the entire healthcare industry. The function of big data analytics and data mining is to find patterns in the data analyzed, thus it would specifically point out the patterns in the falsified and pretentious data. The false information also has a pattern, with which it can be identified easily, but to achieve this, big data analysis and data mining is needed specifically, since the amount of data generated everyday is huge and it is beyond the human capability to make out the patterns with the pile load of data.
References
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