HMG7220 Culture And Society In Public Health

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HMG7220 Culture And Society In Public Health

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HMG7220 Culture And Society In Public Health

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Course Code: HMG7220
University: Victoria University is not sponsored or endorsed by this college or university

Country: Australia

This is a case study assignment. In this assignment, you have to write 2 case studies, write two case studies separately and at the end write the comparisons and similarities of 2 cultural groups in the conclusion of the assignment, each carries. You have to follow the following instructions-
1) select 2 different cultural groups for each case study( eg. Chinese and Hindu culture or any other)2) briefly discuss the social determinants of health as they apply to the identified cultural groups3) describe the health-related risk factors for people from the identified cultural groups4) critically discuss the strategies in place for the provision of health care to address the identified risk factors5) based on available evidence and understanding of the critical health issues among the identified cultural groups, suggest possible strategies and recommendations to address deficits6) Present a coherent summary that identifies similarities and differences between the 2 case studies.

Case Study-1: Christianity Culture
Social Determinants of Health
The social factors of health are defined as the economic & social situations that influence health, the situations in which Christians people are born, nurture, live, and work. The determinants of health include our genetic make-up, behaviours, and social issues that influence health. Some of them are discussed below-

Social position-Christian people with the poorer socioeconomic position are more probable to have poorer access to healthcare. It is directly correlated to their level of education and income. Social position effects whether they are unprotected to health risks or has resources to safeguard health risks. Where they lives can determine if is enclosed by things, which make it easy or problematic to maintain strong behaviours.
Race-Christian community is also affected by ethnic discrimination, which contributes to causes affecting health in terms of uneven dispersal of income, educational achievement, lack, and access to health care. Racial discrimination also establishes a chronic stressor that contributes to deprived health independently of these factors (Badland, Whitzman, Lowe, Davern, Aye, Butterworth & Giles-Corti, 2014).
Stress-Stress is an important social determinant of health. Long-lasting stress is lethal, situation in motion physiologic procedures that can exacerbate illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. They have observed that people with poorer socioeconomic position have higher stages of chronic stress and have fewer assets to deal with stress.
Gender Disparity-It includes the experience of living with HIV and being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender, who consumes alcohol, generic drugs, and generally smoke, which tends to many widespread diseases and affect health and quality of care(Mactaggart, McDermott, Tynan & Gericke, 2016).

Health-related risk factors
Health-related risk factors, which are associated with the Christian people:-

Behavioural risk factors frequently relate to the activities that the people have chosen to take. It can be stated as smoking, tobacco, consuming too much alcohol, dietary choices, physical inactivity etc.
Psychological risk causes are those, which relates to a person’s body or biology. They may be prejudiced by a combination of genetic, way of life and other broad factors. Anxiety and depressions are the major causes of ill health. It embraces high blood pressure, being overweight, high blood cholesterol, and high blood sugar(Hall & Christian, 2017).
Environmental risk factors involves a wide range of factors affecting political, economic, cultural, chemical, social, biological, and physical factors. It includes air pollution, risks in the workplace, and social setting.
Genetic risk factors are built on individual genes. Some illnesses such as muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis come entirely from a person’s genetic make-up. Many other diseases, such as asthma or diabetes, reproduce the interaction between the genes of the person and environmental factors. Other diseases like cancer, typhoid, and heart diseases are prevalent in Christian people.

It contributes greatly to the burden of endocrine disorders, injuries, kidney, and urinary disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Family, sexual, and domestic violence is a major health risk factor of Christian people in Australia. It is a leading source of homelessness for women, children and places a huge burden on services, clinics, and the criminal justice framework. It also subsidizes to accident and damage, such as motor vehicle accidents, physical violence, and murder (Ziaian, de Anstiss, Antoniou, Puvimanasinghe & Baghurst, 2015).
Strategies for the  provision of health care

Informing the community-, Christians usually celebrate communion customary, which includes drinking wine to characterize the body and blood of Jesus Christ.  Educational strategies concerning alcohol is aimed at enhancing community knowledge among Christian people and promotes progressive or healthy attitudes to drinking carefully. Community education approaches in Australia involve communication initiatives and public education programs incorporate national media campaigns, programs directed in institutions, proficient workplace, and schools targeted at definite Christian groups (Dudgeon & Walker, 2015).
Routine Screening tests-Routine screening tests can vary depending upon family history, existing risk factor for particular diseases, as well as age and sex, they can support with the early exposure of chronic disease when patients are asymptomatic. Nurses can play a key role by serving to educate their patients, family, community, and friends on the benefits of routine screenings. 
Regular Physical activity- Christians observe numerous feast and fast days throughout the year and because of that, heart-related problems and blood pressure are been increased.  Therefore, regular physical activity should be done which has the capability to help avoid high cholesterol, stroke, diabetes, and high blood pressure, arthritis, and heart conditions.
Improved induction training- It focused on the role in backing to assuring the sustainability of the administration, increase self-awareness and organizational commitment They develop an organizational concentration beyond environmental stewardship into a more effective and resilient establishment (Keall, Clayton & Butow, 2014).

Strategies and Recommendation

Christian people should improve surveillance framework to drive beyond their risk aspects to embrace the communal and social factors of health.
They should encourage training and build capability that provides the public and private personnel in the extent of public health awareness, skills, and tools to implement communal health advancement methods and values, which may embrace plans that address sustainability, platform assessment, and socio-ecological extents of health.
They should integrate mental health, devoutness, and practices in current programs and new creativities in zones such as disease prevention, health advancement, and emergency readiness(Hunter, Christian, Veitch, Astell-Burt, Hipp & Schipperijn, 2015).
They should involve workforce training which addresses sustainability, program estimation, and socio-ecological magnitudes of health.
They should start diagnostic intervention tactics to screen and initial handling for prostate cancer.
They should involve interventions for chronic illness imitates a strong importance on the utilization of asthma-controlling strategies in primary care.
The Christian community should build alliances in partnership with different community groups, screen, and assess through varying the level of access to products and services.
They should manage their stress level, reduce health inequities, and react to people’s prospects about their health.
They should focus to mitigate the health issues of smaller groups(Trapp, Hickling, Christian, Bull, Timperio, Boruff & Giles-Corti, 2015).

Case Study-2: Hindu Culture
Social Determinants of Health
Social determinants need to be addressed, as there is understanding that there are enormous assortments within and different castes, classes, gender, and widespread regional disparities in both, disease burden and reaction by the healthcare systems and others alarmed with expansion. Disparities in disclosure and vulnerability to sicknesses and health services convenience are pronounced in Australia with the most affected individuals being the poorest.

Health Care System-It is the most serious social determinant of health among Hindu people. They are clearly associated with health outcomes, which are closely secured to public policy, and are evidently understandable by the public. It displays worse rates of use of health services and superior prospect of, and dependence on, family sustenance amongst Hindu migrants, particularly older people, when associated to those who are born in Australia (Ayton, Manderson, Smith & Carey, 2016).
Water and Sanitation-Insufficient and poor quality of water and sanitation has been connected with poor health. A study directed among urban poor societies of Australia over a year specified that water associated illnesses were responsible for Hindu people almost one-third and two-thirds of all illness among adults and youngsters, respectively.
Socio-economic position-Socioeconomic position of Hindu people and groups are critical characteristics for the level of organized health and disease. Disparities in oral health reflect those in general health. Socioeconomic status distresses the incidence and strictness of ill health not only among persons and groups that are underprivileged or poor but also at each level of social hierarchy generating the social incline in health. For long-term illnesses, women are three times more expected to go without action (Haslam, Jetten, Cruwys, Dingle & Haslam, 2018). 

Health-related risk factors
Health-related risk aspects, which are associated with the Hindu people:-

Genetic risk factors incorporate the lifestyle sicknesses, which are more common in Australia, and people are normally much poorer. The diseases that are most contaminated are called Non-Communicable diseases. These NCD’s embrace heart diseases, diabetes, and cancer. The reason that these sicknesses are so common and so fatal is that they do not take their health seriously.
Mental health risk factors involve mental disorders as a shared form of disability in Hindu people identifies the conditions such as schizophrenia, mental retardation, depressive and persistent mood disorders can enforce a marked illness burden on Hindu people(Fernandez, Rolley, Rajaratnam, Everett & Davidson, 2015).
Environmental related risk factors include the living situations, which can be very severe and unsanitary, as it is unusual to own cleaning provisions such as Windex or vacuum cleaners. The lack of clean air, clothing, and a fresh living space generates harmful microorganisms revealed that the main reason for these illnesses is so predominant.
Psychological related risk factors involve the occurrence of risk factors for coronary heart illness, such as hypertension, obesity; diabetes was significantly higher in Hindu people as they take so much tension and stress because of their family and children health and well-being. This leads to hypertension and heart problems.

The most common health-related factors embrace heart diseases and smoking which is very common among Hindu people. It is usually caused by the level of obesity in this culture, which includes eating habits as they eat lots of cheese, foods rich in fats and very late dinner. This is directly prominent to abdominal obesity, which contributes to heart diseases. In this culture, smoking and hookah are very common which causes cancer, lung diseases, and many more (Khawaja, Allan & Schweitzer, 2018).
Strategies for the provision of health care

Social stratification- Changing lifestyle might appear to be the easiest and cheapest way of safeguarding health improvement in a society at any level of expansion. If people learned to transform the way of life in the society and grow the most nourishing diet, which is inside their means, health position would show a notable development (Peek, Carey, Mackenzie & Sanson?Fisher, 2017). Hindu people should not smoke, take alcohol in access, which enables safety conscious on the roads and at work, a large volume of illness and death could be avoided.
Community assessment and monitoring-Hindu people should monitor their blood sugar levels frequently, preserve a healthy diet for the weight, exercise frequently, and choose a low fat, and high-fibre diet.
Risk reduction counselling – It is intensive interactive work usually done with Hindu people who are at a predominantly at high risk. Counselling sessions can be conducted to resolve the problems they are facing i.e. stress and tension, give them straight talk about risky behaviour, and work with them to shape skills to change that conduct. It is often one-on-one but can be ended through small group conferences as well (Mengesha, Dune & Perz, 2016).

Strategies and Recommendation

Healing is an essential concept for Hindu people and should be notable from treatment or curative measures in a biomedical setting. For many Hindu peoples and societies, healing holds an active procedure of regaining from the social impacts of settlement. 
Wellness refers to the conservation and improvement of health and well-being for Hindu people, their families, societies, and nations through the renovation of balance at each of these levels (Wong & Tan, 2017).
The focus should be on training existing health care providers to be ethnically competent in the short term while employed toward the goal that all service workers share the cultural background of the people they serve. 
The Pursuit of equity in access to socially competent health care and healing services, which are delivered to Hindu people, must be an all-embracing goal of any strategy for the improvement of negative health outcomes.
Diversity in the design of framework and services should provide accommodations, diversity in groups, cultural groups, and countries or tribes. There are important differences between approaches to health and healing of Hindu people (Glenister & Prewer, 2018).

Cultural and social diversity in health care is a remote aspect of medical attention, but an important constituent of global excellence in health care provision. Problems of health care value and pleasure are of specific concern for individuals with chronic circumstances who regularly experience the health care system.
The similarities between the Christian and Hindu culture: –

Both the culture has common values of principles and ethics.The duties of Hindu culture are centred on the same merits of compassion, morality, and selflessness that are the spirit of Christianity as well. They offer health care services to every people in the world.
Another pronounced characteristic of both Christianity and Hinduism is in its tolerance as they can stand the medications provided in respect of hazardous diseases.
The most significant feature, however, of both Christianity and Hinduism is their generous and humanistic attitude, as they believe that every people should be supported to get rid out of smoking an alcohol.

The differences between Christianity and Hindu culture: –

Both the culture has various differences that in Christian culture drinking wine is to signify the body and blood of Jesus Christ and in Hindu culture, alcohol are supposed to constrain the Hindu’s quest for divine enlightenment so they evade it as it cause harm to the body.
In Christian culture, they are worried about their health matters but in Hindu, culture they realize when the illness is cannot be prevented.

Therefore, it can be said that people of both the cultures efficiently deliver health care facilities that meet the communal, cultural, and verbal needs of patients.
Ayton, D., Manderson, L., Smith, B. J., & Carey, G. (2016). Health promotion in local churches in V ictoria: an exploratory study. Health & social care in the community, 24(6), 728-738
Badland, H., Whitzman, C., Lowe, M., Davern, M., Aye, L., Butterworth, I., & Giles-Corti, B. (2014). Urban liveability: emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health. Social science & medicine, 111, 64-73
Dudgeon, P., & Walker, R. (2015). Decolonising Australian psychology: Discourses, strategies, and practice. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 3(1), 276-297
Fernandez, R., Rolley, J. X., Rajaratnam, R., Everett, B., & Davidson, P. M. (2015). Reducing the risk of heart disease among Indian Australians: knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding food practices–a focus group study. Food & nutrition research, 59(1), 25770
Glenister, D., & Prewer, M. (2018). Capturing religious identity during hospital admission: a valid practice in our increasingly secular society?.  Australian Health Review, 41(6), 626-631
Hall, M., & Christian, B. (2017). A health-promoting community dental service in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: protocol for the North Richmond model of oral health care. Australian journal of primary health, 23(5), 407-414
Haslam, C., Jetten, J., Cruwys, T., Dingle, G., & Haslam, A. (2018). The new psychology of health: Unlocking the social cure. New York: Routledge.
Hunter, R. F., Christian, H., Veitch, J., Astell-Burt, T., Hipp, J. A., & Schipperijn, J. (2015). The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research. Social Science & Medicine, 124, 246-256
Keall, R., Clayton, J. M., & Butow, P. (2014). How do Australian palliative care nurses address existential and spiritual concerns? Facilitators, barriers and strategies. Journal of clinical nursing, 23(21-22), 3197-3205
Khawaja, N. G., Allan, E., & Schweitzer, R. D. (2018). The Role of School Connectedness and Social Support in the Acculturation in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Youth in Australia. Australian Psychologist, 53(4), 355-364
Mactaggart, F., McDermott, L., Tynan, A., & Gericke, C. (2016). Examining health and well?being outcomes associated with mining activity in rural communities of high?income countries: A systematic review. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 24(4), 230-237
Mengesha, Z. B., Dune, T., & Perz, J. (2016). Culturally and linguistically diverse women’s views and experiences of accessing sexual and reproductive health care in Australia: a systematic review. Sexual health, 13(4), 299-310
Peek, K., Carey, M., Mackenzie, L., & Sanson?Fisher, R. (2017). An observational study of Australian private practice physiotherapy consultations to explore the prescription of self?management strategies. Musculoskeletal care, 15(4), 356-363
Trapp, G. S., Hickling, S., Christian, H. E., Bull, F., Timperio, A. F., Boruff, B., & Giles-Corti, B. (2015). Individual, social, and environmental correlates of healthy and unhealthy eating. Health Education & Behavior, 42(6), 759-768
Wong, S., & Tan, H. (2017). Frames for the Future: Developing Continuing Education & Professional Development Programs for Spiritual Care Practitioners: A Perspective from Victoria, Australia. Journal of Pastoral Care & Counseling, 71(4), 237-256
Ziaian, T., de Anstiss, H., Antoniou, G., Puvimanasinghe, T., & Baghurst, P. (2015). Sociodemographic predictors of health-related quality of life and healthcare service utilisation among young refugees in South Australia. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 6(01), 8

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