HEAL842 Contexts Of Ageing

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HEAL842 Contexts Of Ageing

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HEAL842 Contexts Of Ageing

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Course Code: HEAL842
University: Auckland University Of Technology

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Country: New Zealand

Question:
Compare the New Zealand older adult life expectancy with that country who has higher life expectancy.
Part 1
Pick New Zealand and one other country. Briefly describe the life expectancy’sWhat is the same and what is different about the life expectancy’s between each country

Part 2
Give three recommendations of how the NZ older adult’s life expectancy could be improved with reference to things that have worked well in the country you outlined with the higher life expectancy
Part 3
What is “age friendly” – discussWhat is the same about how “age friendly” as a concept is incorporated into the Healthy Ageing Strategy vs Global Strategy and Action Plan on Ageing and HealthWhat is different about how “age friendly” as a concept is incorporated into the Healthy Ageing Strategy vs Global Strategy and Action Plan on Ageing and Health
Part 4
Why are “age friendly” communities important e.g. what evidence supports thisAny criticisms of the current “age friendly” concept e.g. is there anything missed out of current conceptWhat are the challenges to achieving an “age friendly” community?

Answer:

Part 1: Analysis of difference in life expectancy of older adults between New Zealand and Japan
According to the World health organization, Life expectancy describes the holistic mortality level of the population. It concise the mortality pattern that is prevalent among the different age groups including children, youth, adults and aged persons. It depends on several factors like life lifestyle,   gender, demographic and geographic components (McLachlan, 2018). The life expectancies of the countries are mainly documented through life tables. The total life expectancy in New Zealand is 81.61 years according to the government data of 2016. The analysis of the two genders is done. The life expectancy of a male is 80.5 years and female is 84.2 years in New Zealand (New Zealandgovernment, 2016). However, Japan excels in the parameter of life expectancy than New Zealand. According to the World Health Organization report, overall life expectancy in Japan is 84.2 years. The average life expectancy of the male is 81.1 years and that of a female is 87.1 years in Japan. On the other hand, the main similarities between the life expectancy In Japan and New Zealand are the life expectancy of females is more than the male population. The main factors causing morbidity and mortality in the aging population of New Zealand are as follows (Ministry of Health, 2018).  Geriatric diseases such as dementia, ischemic and coronary heart disease and stroke are arisen due to the rise of blood pressure.
The Table represents Mortality percentage due to the above-mentioned causative factors in New Zealand.

1.

Dementia and Geriatric disorder

7.9%

2.

Ischemic and Coronary heart disease

21.84%

3.

Stroke

9.71%

 
On the other hand, the main diseases that caused Mortality in Japan are Coronary heart problems, stroke and chronic diseases like influenza and Pneumonia. The following table represents the mortality rate of Japan due to the above-mentioned causative factors.

1.

Influenza

34%

2.

Coronary Heart Problem

40%

3.

Stroke

33%

Moreover, there is a unique comparison between the Maori and the Non-Maori population. The life expectancy of the Non- Maori population is more than the Maori population.

Fig: 1 Source: https://archive.stats.govt.nz
It is clearly seen from the figure that the life expectancy among the Maori and the Non-Maori population has a certain difference. The average life expectancy of the Non- Maori male and female are 19.1 and 21.6 years. On the other hand, the life expectancy of the Maori men and women are 15.4 and 17.5 years respectively (McLachlan, 2018).  Moreover, the picture in Japan depicts clearly that there is a steady rate of growth in the life expectancy of aged persons over 60 years of age. The Main factors are the lifestyle change, like reduction in consumption of tobacco and alcohol in aged Japanese population has helped the cause (New Zealandgovernment, 2016) . It is seen that the reduction in the percentage of smokers in the Japanese population is significant. The reduction is from 44 to 24 % in male and 7.8 to 6.4 % in females from the year 1996 to the present time. On the contrast, the Maori population Shows increase in smoking tendencies compared to the Asian and Europeans.  This may cause fatal results for the Maori population (Ministry of Health, 2018).

Fig 2, Source Google
Part 2: Recommendations to increase the Life expectancy of older persons in New Zealand In relation to Japan
The main recommendation to increase the holistic life expectancy of aged population keeping  in mind the above causative factors are as below:

Dementia is one of the problems occurring in the aged population of New Zealand. Through efficient formal and informal care planning the dementia patients may be treated. This will lead to an increase in the life expectancy of the aged population (Ministry of Health, 2018). It is very much important to provide appropriate nursing care for the dementia patients in an informal homely atmosphere. Aged care facilities may be built to provide support for the aging population of New Zealand. On the other hand, Japan has one of the best healthcare services.  They have coordinated care system for the aged care population (McLachlan, 2018). The government of Japan is trying to improve the system. If proper disability support service is planned then it will help in the efficient treatment of the dementia patients. Need assessment of the patients should be done in a perfect way to give effective service (WHO, 2018). Effective funding should be provided by the government to set up the aged care support services. It is estimated the cost of the establishments will be around 1300 million dollars in New Zealand.
Another major cause of Mortality in New Zealand is the coronary and ischemic heart and cardiovascular disorders. The improvement of the primary care settings is needed to mitigate this kind of heart disease (WHO, 2018). The technological improvement may be done in the primary and the secondary care settings in New Zealand to provide the best quality assessment. Moreover, if new devices are installed to perform different tests of the cardiovascular system then the rate of morbidity and mortality can be mitigated (World Health Organisation, 2016). Different tests like an angiogram, ECG, EEG may be performed by sophisticated instruments. In the process of complex surgery, sophisticated instruments and techniques may be used to reduce the risk factor (WHO, 2018).  In contrast, Japan has invested a quality amount of funds for the holistic development of there primary care by installing sophisticated technologies.  They may enhance the primary care service through effective coordination and allocation of the right amount of funds (World Health Organisation, 2016).  It will help to reduce mortality and morbidity due to Influenza in Japan.
Another important recommendation to improve the life expectancy of the aged population of New Zealand is the effective establishment of the Long-term care for the aged population.  The long-term care includes different kinds of health service those needs improvement. It includes the ambulatory service, pharmaceutical service (Ministry of Health, 2018). Long-term nursing care involves management of the aged people through prominent coordination among the primary and secondary care settings. The long-term care involves the installation and maintenance of the acute care nursing setting for emergency patients (New Zealandgovernment, 2016). If there is an establish and properly monitored long-term support service is will enable the aged population in getting regular health check-ups that may reduce the probability of stroke in the aged population of New Zealand . Similar steps may be taken to mitigate the probability of occurring of stroke among the aged population of Japan. Thus by following this recommendation holistic development in the life expectancy of the aged population in New Zealand may be done in reflection with Japan.

Part 3: Aged friendly initiative

Age-friendly

An age-friendly community is an initiative of the World Health Organization (WHO) where the aged people can stay happily and respectfully with all the healthcare facilities. The growing number of the ageing population has been a great concern for what the initiative has been developed (Buffel & Phillipson, 2016).  It is a global phenomenon that aims to create an environment where people of all ages can participate in the health care programs of the WHO. The age-friendly community program is specially developed by the WHO to prioritize the healthcare issues of people of different ages. The New Zealand government took this initiative to control the rise of the ageing population and ageing place policies (Buffel & Phillipson, 2016). It is estimated that by the end of 2036, more than 24% of the people of New Zealand would be more than 65 years. Thus, these ageing people require an age-friendly community that can be suitable for them to lead their life happily with all healthcare facilities.
This initiative was first taken in New Zealand by the authority of Hamilton city. The ageing population of Hamilton was 11.4% of the overall population of 161,000. It is expected that the ageing population in Hamilton would be 32,000 at the end of 2018 which would be 17% of the overall and 62,000 by the end of 2048 (Steels, 2015). Thus, the ageing friendly would be an effective initiative to provide a safe and happy life to this old aged community.
Similarities between healthy ageing strategy and global strategy and action plan on ageing
Both the healthy ageing strategy and global strategy and action plan for ageing strategies are developed to nullify be ageing issues in New Zealand. The similarities between healthy ageing strategy and global strategy and action plan for ageing are as follows

Both the strategies are developed to maximize the functional ability of the ageing population (Bradshaw, Stobie, Knuiman,, Briffa & Hobbs, 2014).
Both the strategies are committed to developing the age-friendly environment (Bradshaw, Stobie, Knuiman,, Briffa & Hobbs, 2014).
Both the strategies are systematic to satisfy the needs of the older population (Steels, 2015).
Both the communities measure, monitor, research the healthy ageing (Greenfield, Oberlink, Scharlach, Neal & Stafford, 2015).
A wide range of stakeholders is attached to both the strategies (Greenfield, Oberlink, Scharlach, Neal & Stafford, 2015).

The similarities between healthy ageing strategy and global strategy and action plan on ageing signify that both the initiatives are developed to provide an aged friendly and secure environment to the older population (Buffel & Phillipson, 2016). 
Difference between healthy ageing strategy and global strategy and action plan on ageing health

The healthy ageing strategy and global strategy prioritize the healthy ageing to the older people. On the contrary, the action plan on ageing health strategy develops a delivery model to provide care delivery to support the aged people (World Health Organization, 2015).
The healthy ageing and global strategy provide quality care and rehabilitation for older people. On the contrary, the action plan on ageing health strategy continues providing police, fire and healthcare protection (World Health Organization, 2015).
The healthy ageing strategy and global strategy ensures long-term healthcare solutions. On the contrary, the action plan of the ageing population focuses to reduce the social isolation (World health Organization, 2014).
A respectful end of life care is provided by healthy ageing strategy and global strategy to the old aged people. On the contrary, the action plan on ageing health provides safe and secured optimal healthcare service (World health Organization, 2014).

The differences between healthy ageing strategy and global strategy and action plan on ageing signify two different effective approaches to provide an aged friendly environment to the older community (Kowal, Towers & Byles, 2014).
Part 4: Elaboration of the aged friendly initiative 

Importance of aged friendly communities

The aged friendly communities are developed by the WHO to mitigate the ageing problems in the various nationalities. It is notable that the growth of the ageing population may increase the amount of physical inefficiency in the nations (Kowal, Towers & Byles, 2014).  Thus, the effectiveness of aged friendly community lies in developing the health care of the old aged population. This can also be effective to reduce the number of inefficiency from the workforce. Thus, the importance of aged friendly communities is as follows

This would keep satisfying the basic needs of the old aged people at the exact time (World health Organization, 2014).
The aged friendly community plays a pivotal role in developing mental health. The old aged population is increasing in Hamilton, New Zealand which is presently 27,800. An aged friendly environment is required for them to satisfy their cognitive development and mental pleasure (World health Organization, 2015).
The aged friendly community helps the old aged people by providing them with transportation, recreation, artistic pleasure and healthcare (World health Organization, 2014).
They use to involve the old aged people in various community services to keep their mobility (World health Organization, 2015).

Critical analysis of the Age-friendly concept
The Age-friendly concept is one of the major concepts developed by the world health organization for the holistic development of the aged people in the community. The area of social inclusion in the concept is being criticized by the researchers (Iecovich, 2014). The researchers give stress in the variables like economic inequalities and social disorder to be mitigated in a proper way so that social inclusion might occur. It will help to develop the social environment for implementation of the age-friendly concept in the community(Iecovich, 2014).  According to the Vancouver protocol, the social inclusion lacks physical security from harm. Physical safety components need to be enhanced in the age-friendly concept (World Health Organization, 2014).
Challenges of Age-friendly
The main challenges that may be  faced in  creating an age-friendly community are as below:

Financial challenges: To develop an age-friendly society a huge amount of allocation of the fund is necessary. As the Age-friendly concept includes providing adequate care to the aged persons so funds will be required to set up adequate support service for the aged population of New Zeland (World Health Organization, 2014). If there is collaboration among the government and the private bodies then only it is possible.
Political challenges:The central government sometimes does not show appropriate interest in the projects.  Lack of resources and funding for establishment becomes one of the vital challenges for implementation of the age-friendly concept (Sardar, Chatterjee, Chaudhari & Lip, 2014). It is seen that there is a lack of integrated approach among the departments of the central government which becomes one of the major challenges for the implementation of the program. There is a lack of participation from the local councils as well.
Human resource challenge:Since the age-friendly concept involves a complex and dynamic work so the efficient human resource is needed for the implementation of the age-friendly program in an effective manner (Sardar, Chatterjee, Chaudhari & Lip, 2014). Lack of proper human resource is one of the major challenge faced during the implementation of the age-friendly concept in the community.
Lack of Interest and awareness-The age-friendly concept involves a wide array of community participation. Lack of appropriate interest and awareness is another challenge in the implementation of the program in the community (Sardar, Chatterjee, Chaudhari & Lip, 2014).

References
Bradshaw, P. J., Stobie, P., Knuiman, M. W., Briffa, T. G., & Hobbs, M. S. (2014). Trends in the incidence and prevalence of cardiac pacemaker insertions in an ageing population. Open heart, 1(1), e000177.https://openheart.bmj.com/content/openhrt/1/1/e000177.full.pdf
Buffel, T., & Phillipson, C. (2016). Can global cities be ‘age-friendly cities’? Urban development and ageing populations. Cities, 55, 94-100. https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/45091016/CITIES_-_can_global_cities_be_age-friendly.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1541422194&Signature=9%2FwYepxrpeZoVE6%2FaUZI49NvTxk%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DCan_global_cities_be_age-friendly_cities.pdf
Greenfield, E. A., Oberlink, M., Scharlach, A. E., Neal, M. B., & Stafford, P. B. (2015). Age-friendly community initiatives: Conceptual issues and key questions. The Gerontologist, 55(2), 191-198. https://watermark.silverchair.com/gnv005.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAj4wggI6BgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggIrMIICJwIBADCCAiAGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMTkm5IIgXSQXqS3VgAgEQgIIB8SOHtDjXoj00B8ZavY67lBTnB9qUdcUMVSwOKsSpnqqWdLtXr30CBzoDRUcw4xynVoysgT4uJFfU2W9aF1GrSXNTqaZwI04KQV3qD2EzeJUtG8di3cMEyqENgj86GV2NSEw6s1y1T8MHGDDaaI2hx-vPBv1vu9ayfbJcSxibB2gbx5Xde8PU6CUdltNGrsTuO4w78uXGl5eUZhBbAzawaAGuh9rnxi8LkXjyLzuPFOr-MSEce7n8OzmC36PMVh8voHbwupJ7b0zHUUEMG0QwOqVTqKXRFvdafgNsYmWkG48NS_0rTeKnBSKD4wfnVCQvlngC4Jhpnk3psnok1Vaepju4qf76JjM_mA6jILhvfHdvHwVMVVwqfSzploXhl7ohnaDPAtB9apt2EdHuI51-U8PNOAPf-Yr8exkdOEq8BKmwUmwqyYYFydxtPWdZ9ZtF9UH1bFEEF7TETqVY1E9wMg1NU-RJhYOXq5YSDvwFByWjCzDZ78i7rT73PpFW-B43ZPcKzJWwBNBc3icr_fKGeOfwH_P84y2ureEK3KItFofayScIH1pMw4kCGmNzLglwsxfEDWaCoiTh9KsO8D86ZdZZFdkUxYtGey7nMtrsgzPbEUlXQN_jfLZ3Kobmm4Y5InJPdrAkp5E52X7xotSLbFWB
Iecovich, E. (2014). Aging in place: From theory to practice. Anthropological notebooks, 20(1), 21-33.https://www.drustvo-antropologov.si/AN/PDF/2014_1/Anthropological_Notebooks_XX_1_Iecovich.pdf
Kowal, P., Towers, A., & Byles, J. (2014). Ageing across the Tasman Sea: the demographics and health of older adults in Australia and New Zealand. Australian and New Zealand journal of public health, 38(4), 377-383.https://www.icsspe.org/system/files/Steels%20-%20Key%20characteristics%20of%20age-friendly%20cities%20and%20communities%20A%20review.pdf
McLachlan.E.,(2018). New Zealand life expectancy [Online], Retrieved from https://www.canstar.co.nz/life-insurance/new-zealand-life-expectancy/ 
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Sardar, P., Chatterjee, S., Chaudhari, S., & Lip, G. Y. (2014). New oral anticoagulants in elderly adults: evidence from a meta?Analysis of randomized trials. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(5), 857-864.https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/fe27/04e0bfa84871eee48c7cd2ebc479543b5db8.pdf
Steels, S. (2015). Key characteristics of age-friendly cities and communities: A review. Cities, 47, 45-52. https://www.icsspe.org/system/files/Steels%20-%20Key%20characteristics%20of%20age-friendly%20cities%20and%20communities%20A%20review.pdf
WHO.,(2018). Towards an age-friendly world[Online], Retrieved from https://www.who.int/ageing/age-friendly-world/en/ 
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