Final Examination:Anatomy & Physiology.

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Final Examination:Anatomy & Physiology.

This is a 40-question final examination. Each question is worth 0.25 point.

1. Serum is ____ while albumin is ____.A. a blood gas; blood clots B. the liquid portion of blood; the cells C. lacking clotting protein; a regulator of blood osmolality D. the cellular portion of blood; acellular components E. mostly protein; the matrix
2. Which of the following is another name for WBC?a. erythrocyte

b. reticulocyte

c. thrombocyte

d. monocyte

e. leukocyte

3. In coagulation,a. factor XII is activated.

b. ADP and thromboxanes stimulate other platelets to become activated.

c. activated platelets are connected by fibrinogen.

d. prostaglandin production is inhibited.

e. platelets convert to fibrin.

4. On the diagram of RBC production, what does “E” represent?a. increased blood oxygen

b. decreased blood oxygen

c. erythropoietin

d. kidney

e. red bone marrow

Final Examination:Anatomy & Physiology.
5. The atriuma. is a four-chambered muscular pump.

b. is posterior to the trachea.

c. is a thin walled, blood receiving chamber

d. lies mostly to the right of the midline of the sternum.

e. has a superior apex and an inferior base.

6. Blood in the right ventricle will enter the _____.a. Aorta

b. right atrium

c. pulmonary trunk

d. pulmonary arteries

e. pulmonary veins

7. Which of the following is matched correctly?a. opening of sodium fast channels – depolarization

b. closing of calcium slow channels – plateau phase

c. opening of potassium channels – depolarization

d. closure of sodium channels – threshold

e. opening of calcium slow channels – repolarization

8. Closure of the aortic valve would give rise toa. the first heart sound.

b. the second heart sound.

c. a heart murmur.

d. an extra heart beat.

e. end-systolic volume.

Final Examination:Anatomy & Physiology.

9. Identify structure “B” on the heart diagram.a. left atrium

b. aortic semilunar valve

c. bicuspid (mitral) valve

d. right atrium

e. pulmonary semilunar valve

10. Pulmonary blood vessels transport blooda. from the left ventricle through the body to the left atrium.

b. from the left ventricle through the body to the right atrium.

c. from the right ventricle through the lungs to the left atrium.

d. from the right ventricle through the lungs to the right atrium.

e. from the left ventricle to the lungs.

Final Examination:Anatomy & Physiology.

11. Arteries a. carry blood away from the heart.

b. carry blood under very high pressure.

c. may contain valves and are lined with endothelium.

d. are described as strong, rigid vessels that always carry oxygenated blood.

e. have thick, many layered walls.

12. Veins that return blood from the digestive organs drain into thea. brachiocephalic vein.

b. superior vena cava.

c. hepatic portal vein.

d. azygos vein.

e. pulmonary arteries.

13. When the blood pressure is high, normal blood vessels willa. be hypotensive.

b. increase in blood flow.

c. increase in peripheral resistance.

d. collapse.

e. expand.

Final Examination:Anatomy & Physiology.

14. The lymphatic system differs from the cardiovascular system in thata. the lymph capillaries do not normally contain formed elements.

b. the lymphatic vessels have their own “pump” to assist flow.

c. lymph capillaries do not contain any fluid.

d. lymph capillaries allow free movement of fluid in and out of the capillaries.

e. lymph circulates fluids and cardiovascular does not.

15. The spleen contains _____ , which is an RBC reservoir.a. splenic trabeculae

b. blood-spleen barrier

c. red pulp

d. white pulp

e. splenic cavity

16. Innate immunity isa. adaptive.

b. inborn.

c. formed by antibodies.

d. part of complement.

e. controlled by plasma proteins.

17. What does “B” represent on the diagram?a. spleen

b. thymus

c. axillary lymph node

d. inguinal lymph node

e. thoracic duct

Final Examination:Anatomy & Physiology.

18. Internal respiration refers to thea. movement of air into and out of the lungs.

b. gas exchange between the blood and the tissues.

c. transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

d. gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood.

e. respiration at the cellular level.

19. Arrange the following structures in the order air passes through them during EXPIRATION: 1: alveolar ducts 2: alveolus 3: respiratory bronchiole 4: terminal bronchiolea. 1, 2, 3, 4

b. 2, 1, 3, 4

c. 4, 3, 1, 2

d. 3, 2, 1, 4

e. 4, 3, 2, 1

20. Most oxygen is transported in the blooda. in the form of bicarbonate ions.

b. bound to albumin compounds.

c. dissolved in the plasma.

d. by the leukocytes.

e. bound to hemoglobin.

21. The diagram illustrates the major regulatory mechanisms of ventilation. What mechanism does “C” represent?a. Hering-Breuer reflex

b. receptors for touch, temperature, pain stimuli

c. medullary chemoreceptors

d. carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors

e. proprioceptors

22. Which of the following is the purpose for breathing?a. fuel cellular respiration

b. food selection

c. elimination of undigested food

d. regulation of blood pH

e. integration and coordination of other systems

23. The parotid glanda. secretes saliva.

b. plays a major role in swallowing.

c. contains a lot of connective and lymphatic tissues.

d. is attached to the hard palate.

e. functions in deglutition apnea.

24. Which of the following represents a match in small intestine wall structure?a. muscularis – two layers; both circular

b. rugae – folds of mucosa and submucosa

c. mucosa – gastric glands

d. villi – folds of the mucosa

e. lining – simple columnar epithelium

Final Examination:Anatomy & Physiology.

25. Blockage of the pyloric valve would preventa. pancreatic juice from entering the duodenum.

b. bile from entering the duodenum.

c. lymph from entering the jejunum.

d. chyme from entering the duodenum.

e. chyme from entering the large intestine.

26. Which of the following apply to the stomach intestine?a. Secretions from the liver and pancreas enter this organ.

b. Segmentation contractions occur in this organ.

c. Little absorption occurs in this organ.

d. Mixing and propulsion of chyme.

e. All of these choices apply to the small intestine.

27. The diagram illustrates an absorptive structure in the duodenum. What does “E” represent?a. Microvilli

b. epithelial cell

c. capillary

d. lacteal

e. villus

28. Vitamin Da. is a nutrient in foods.

b. is necessary for the body’s utilization of nutrients.

c. is water soluble.

d. is lipid soluble.

e. All of these choices are correct.


29. Excess sugars are stored in the liver and muscles. This storage form is calleda. adipose tissue.

b. glucose.

c. energy storage.

d. glycogen.

e. All of these choices are correct.

30. The most favored source of energy from food isa. glucose.

b. pyruvate.

c. fat.

d. cellulose.

e. creatine.

31. Renin functions ina. preventing blood loss.

b. white blood cell production.

c. increasing blood pressure.

d. excretion of nitrogenous wastes (such as urea).

e. production of the hormone aldosterone.

32. The first portion of the renal tubule isa. glomerulus.

b. ascending loop of Henle.

c. distal convoluted tubule.

d. proximal convoluted tubule.

e. descending loop of Henle.

33. Which of the following pressures tends oppose filtration at Bowman’s capsule?a. tubular pressure

b. renal pressure

c. colloid osmotic pressure

d. glomerular capillary pressure

e. None of these choices is correct.

34. ADH mainly targets cells in thea. proximal convoluted tubule.

b. loop of Henle.

c. distal convoluted tubule.

d. glomerulus.

e. collecting duct.

35. Which of the following fluid compartments contains the smallest volume of water?a. plasma

b. interstitial compartment

c. intracellular compartment

d. extracellular compartment

e. lymph

36. Low blood pressure under resting conditions results in decreased urinary output becausea. baroreceptors signal the hypothalamus to increase ADH secretion.

b. low blood pressure stimulates renin secretion.

c. the amount of angiotensin II formed is increased.

d. aldosterone levels increase.

e. baroreceptors signal the hypothalamus to decrease ADH secretion.

Final Examination:Anatomy & Physiology.

37. PTH a. promotes the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract.

b. promotes osteoclast activity in the bones.

c. reduces calcium excretion by the kidneys.

d. increases extracellular calcium ion levels.

e. All of the above are functions of PTH.

38. The seminal vesiclesa. are located in the abdominal cavity.

b. are in the scrotum.

c. regulate a temperature that is suitable for normal sperm development.

d. is isolated from the accessory glands of the system.

e. are inferior to the bulbo-urethral glands.

39. Shortly before ovulation,a. the granulosa cells become corpus luteum cells.

b. estrogen increases but progesterone decreases.

c. the level of LH rises..

d. GnRH receptors upregulate.

e. corpus luteum degenerates.

40. What does “B” on the diagram represent?a. vagina

b. cervix

c. uterus

d. ovary

e. uterine tube

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Final Examination:Anatomy & Physiology.

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