Emerging Technology in Surgery
Subject: Healthcare Research
Abstract Emerging technologies are conquering the major fields of science and technology. The emerging technologies are those which are introduced a few years back and are being developed each day and night. The researches on those are being executed with keen and sharp concentration. The recent advents in the fields are all due to the wide acceptance of those technologies. The paper on Emerging Technologies put forward here analyses the technologies of Robotics in Surgery and Mobile WiMAX. The surgical sector has seen better development with the innovation of Robotics in it. The physical absence of the surgeons taking part in surgery has helped in making use of the efficiency of doctors who are, at the same, time thousands of kilometers apart and away from the site of operation. Similarly, WiMAX is a new trend seen in mobile technological development. Mobile communication which has turned out to be the most accepted mode of communication is being developed each and every second. The users of mobiles opt for the facility of internet communication as well along with the telecommunication provided. The WiMAX facilitated mobile handsets are recognized extensively and even the cost and speed constraints are much modified for the best results.
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Introduction The background of the work is spread over the emerging technologies prevailing in the contemporary field of science and technology. The emerging technologies of Robotics in surgery and Mobile WiMAX are having considerable significance due to their wide acceptance. The paper is organized with a hierarchical approach on various aspects and trends of the two technologies one by one. Each technology is described and the business cum societal inclination on it is identified briefly. The work as a whole helps in routing out the influence of the named technologies in the expanded areas other than the sectors of their actual applications. Robotics in surgery Robotics is a prominent donation of engineering to the development of science and technology. Robotics in Surgery is the newer trend in the field of medicine. The acceptance of this advent is on the account of its success in the field and the least redundancy identified. “Robotic technology is enhancing surgery through improved precision, stability, and dexterity. In image-guided procedures, robots use magnetic resonance and computed tomography image data to guide instruments to the treatment site.” (Howe & Matsuoka 1999, p.211). The various advantages of the technology have kept it in its current position in the field. The introduction of robots in surgery was done in the year 1986. The number of companies dedicated to it is very less but the researches for development is carried out effectively. The robots are used in the field of medicine for surgical as well as non-surgical purposes. The surgical robots are divided into two categories: Telemanipulators and Image-Guided Surgery Robots. Telemanipulators The telemanipulators are used in minimally invasive surgery. The minimally invasive surgery incorporates a design of “an integrated teleoperation and telepresence system for planning, training and performing different minimally invasive surgical procedures.” (Rininsland 1999). The system has separate parts for carrying out different tasks in the surgery.
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(Howe & Matsuoka 1999, p.215). The entire Robot is of two parts named as master and slave. The slave part is the actual operator who has controlled b the master part through a computer unit connecting them. The master is given the entire guidance by the surgeon who supervises the surgery. The slave has the capability of accurate movements controlled completely by the master. The observation of the patient done by the slave is fed back through the master to the doctor who is actually heading the operation. Also, parallel video coverage of the whole job is sent to the doctor by the video robot installed. These types of robots are used in surgeries in abdominal, thoracic areas. Image-Guided Surgery Robots This is the separate sector of surgery widely used in the cases handling with the most vital parts of the human body like brain, heart, etc. “Image-guided surgery (IGS) is the use of a real-time correlation of the operative field to a preoperative imaging data set that reflects the precise location of a selected surgical instrument to the surrounding anatomic structures.” (Sadoughi, Brown, Nachlas & Fried 2008). The usage of various most modern imaging techniques facilitates the locating of the growth, injuries, or problem in the interior of the body precisely. Thus the part alone can be operated with the least harm to the adjacent parts. “The merging of image-guided surgery (IGS) and robot-assisted surgery (RAS) allows surgeons to avail the best of both imaging and endoscopic technologies, revolutionizing the surgical field.” (Image-guided and robot-assisted surgery-a growing trend in the surgical field 2009). The exact point to be operated is located out and the precise tools incorporated in the toolkit of the robot are used to operate it keeping the surrounding tissues intact. The brain tumors’ treatment is specially benefited by this technique as minute damage to the surrounding cells may result in the malfunctioning of some other systems of the human body. Advantages of Robotics in Surgery There are numerous merits identified in the technology of robotic surgery as follows “Less Personnel Required, Surgery at a Distance,
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Reduced Trauma and Faster Patient Recovery.” (What is robotic surgery? 2009). Less Personnel Required The number of people involved in the surgery is reduced to a greater extent which in turn adds to the efficiency of the operation. Surgery at a Distance The main surgeons employed in the surgery be physically absent as well. The different doctors involved in the surgery may be located at different places far away from each other and from the patient. Reduced Trauma and Faster Patient Recovery The intensity of the shock is minimized in the case of robotic surgery the healing of the wounds is relatively faster. The pain produced is very less in this case of surgeries. The advantages explained to show the way towards the truth of wide acceptance of the technology and its advancements. Limitations of Robotic Surgery Though Robotics is extensively appreciated in the field of surgery, they have limitations as well. The mechanical setup of telemanipulators restricts agility, specifically for minimally invasive surgeries with a strict amount of restrictions. The Robots are controlled by computers which implies the absence of the ability to sense the situation and reasoning power, unlike a human being. In the case of image-guided surgeries, the analysis of the images cannot be performed with sufficient logic and sense y the Robots. If a robot is built with accuracy to the maximum limit, then the programming of the robot becomes tedious. The impact of Robotics in surgery on business Robotics in surgery finds demand due to the advantages offered by it. “Washington Hospital is incorporating robotics into many of its clinical and educational areas, to help train future surgeons and provide our patients with the most advanced medical treatments,” Dr. Araj said.” (Washington hospital performs the U.S. first in robotic surgery using ZEUS surgical system 2003).
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The above words of Dr. Araj clearly explain the market they expect in the future. The business profit they anticipate will be huge as the expenses they are delivering at present is not of their much concern. “The US market is leading in robotic applications, with the global market a few years behind in the adoption cycle.” (Robotic surgery-large potential market n.d., p.1). The fact is unveiled about the global competition in the field of robotic surgery. The impact of Robotics in surgery on society The effect of the innovations of surgery using robotics on contemporary society is very deep. The trust in the technology as a system of operation with the least harm turns out the system to be as bliss for patients from the painful risky usual methods of operation. “Robotics can offer solutions, not for every aspect of every problem but for a significant proportion, especially for patient groups such as amputees, stroke sufferers or people with cognitive or mental problems.” (Robotics for healthcare n.d., p.4). The patients from any field of medicine who opted for operations find relief in the robotic surgery itself. Society has accepted it with full hands owing to the advantages offered by the system. Mobile WiMAX Mobile WiMAX is an emerging technology that is utilized for mobile data communication using the IEEE 802.6 standard widely known as Broadband Wireless Access. “Mobile WiMAX or 802.16e standard was ratified by the IEEE in late 2005 as a potential to emerge as a real viable competitor to existing 3G technologies.” (What is WiMAX mobile or 802.16e? 2009). This latent achieved grip while South Korea was designated to acquire a mobile WiMAX attuned standard called wireless broadband for sale. Initially, it was named WiBro and later renamed Mobile WiMAX. There are a number of facilities available for data communication but WiMAX is widely accepted for its advantages. “WiMAX will make ubiquitous high-speed data services a reality.” (Pareek 2006, p.17). The speed provided by this technology reaches up to 70Mbps with efficiency at lower frequencies as well. The line of sight is not required in the case of WiMAX. The global trend always opts for pace which I the key to the successful launch of WiMAX. Aspects of Networking with WiMAX The various layers are involved in the data communication networking. The IEEE 802.16 defines mainly the two layers. “WiMAX/802.16 defines two layers of the protocol stack, physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC).” (Ahson & Ilyas 2007, p.198). The MAC layer is responsible for the setting up of network connection and keeping the safety constraints in position. The physical layer is the domain for encoding and modulating processes. Issues on Security in WiMAX The data communication should be secure enough in all the possible aspects. “WiMAX is the much-anticipated broadband wireless access mechanism for delivering high-speed connectivity over long distances, making it attractive to Internet and telecommunications service providers.” (Wright 2006). So the IEEE 802.16 proposed various methods for meeting the security requirements of the system like “Authentication”, “Encryption”, and “Availability.” (Wright 2006). The security problems faced with the other standards like IEEE 802.11 were eliminated effectively by these steps taken up. Advantages and Applications of WiMAX The main advantages of WiMAX are the speed, cost, range, and networking constraints. “WiMAX will offer the capacity for service providers to deploy next-generation broadband service more cost-effectively than today, to a wider customer base, while adding a mobility aspect to those services.” (WiMAX applications 2009). The contemporary 3G technology will soon be replaced by the 4G technology which is a donation of the WiMAX to the mobile communication field. Quadruple and Triple modes of playing the media files like audio, video, data, etc. become a truth with WiMAX technology. Limitations of WiMAX Any technology can have limitations as well. “One disadvantage of WiMAX is the spectral limitation, in other words, limitation of wireless bandwidth.” (WiMAX: a tutorial: what is WiMAX n.d.). The bandwidth limitation is the one major fault seen in this technology along with the possibility for a high bit error rate when used at greater distances. The impact of Mobile WiMAX on business The WiMAX finds greater business opportunities in the sector of mobile communication. “Rinicom Ltd develops, manufactures and supports Professional Wireless Video Surveillance Systems, for Civilian, Military and Professional Security applications.” (World leaders in wireless surveillance technology 2005). The company called Rinicom has developed its own WiMAX product named RiniMAX. “The RiniMAX provides an elegant, flexible, cost-effective WiMAX network deployment solution for increasing capacity and coverage, supporting multi-sector configurations.” (Product specification: RiniMAX R8000-WiMAX 802.16e n.d.). The business in the WiMAX applications helps in the development of various firms similar to Rinicom. Always modernization is accepted by people with full heartedness. So as in the case of WiMAX, this will find proper demand in the market. “Mobile WiMAX, based on the IEEE 802.16e-2005 global standard, leads the evolution roadmap with market-ready solutions leveraging the chief technology enablers attributable to 4G wireless platforms.” (The business of WiMAX 2007, p.3). The emerging WiMAX technology is anticipated for the conquering of the entire mobile communication field. The fresh applications provided by the mobile companies always make the people opt for it which leads to demand for the latest models in the market. Thus WiMAX contributes much to the development of the mobile industry. The impact of Mobile WiMAX on society The mobile WiMAX technology propagates the easier usage of data communication in mobile. The common people get the advantage that the access to the facility removes the problems related to browsing when they are in travel. All the e-facilities become available for every person in any situation. WiMAX encourages people for using the internet and other services provided by the advent. Thus the social networking becomes a common aspect of people worldwide. The social interrelationships will be set in a wider sense through various social communities. This will eventually contribute to the scientific and technological development of society with ease and speed. Conclusions The paper identifies the emerging technologies namely Robotics in surgery and Mobile WiMAX technology. The investigation leads to the fact that they have a fine influence on all sections of real life as well as science and technology. It is found that the advent of Robotics in the field of surgery turned out a harmony for patients and surgeons. The business expansions are entertained much along with the societal benefits. The mobile communication sector is entering a newer era identified as 4G which will of course replace the existing 3G mobiles. fresh generation hopefully adds glow to various existing as well as innovating companies worldwide. The face of the mobile market will change considerably with Mobile WiMAX applications. Society gets more convenience in the data communication and networking constraints as a whole. Thus to be clear, the emerging technologies always change the appearance of entire fields explored by human beings by effectively contributing the latest tint each day and night to the contemporary world. Reference List Ahson, S, & Ilyas, M 2007, WiMAX: standards and security, CRC Press. Howe, RD, & Matsuoka, Y 1999, Robotics for surgery, Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng, vol.01, pp.211-240, Annual Reviews. Web. Image-guided and robot-assisted surgery-a growing trend in the surgical field: market overview 2009, The Free Library by Farlex. Web. Pareek, D 2006, WiMAX: taking wireless to the Max, CRC Press. Product specification: RiniMAX R8000-WiMAX 802.16e n.d., Rinicom: Generation Wireless. Web. Rininsland, H 1999, Artemis, a telemanipulator for cardiac surgery, European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol.16, no.2, pp.s106-s111. Web. Robotics for healthcare: personalising care and boosting the quality, access and efficiency of healthcare: revolutionary robotics n.d. Web. Robotic surgery-large potential market: description n.d., Research and Markets. Web. Sadoughi, B, Brown, SM, Nachlas, NE, & Fried, MP 2008, Image-guided surgery: introduction, E Medicine from WebMd. Web. The business of WiMAX: impact of technology , architecture & spectrum on the WiMAX business care 2007, Motorola.com. Web. Washington hospital performs U.S. first in robotic surgery using ZEUS surgical system 2003, All Business, A D&B Company: Simple Solutions, Powerful Advice. Web. What is robotic surgery?: advantages of robotic surgery 2009, Tech Faq. 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