CHEM 2701 Pre Health Chemistry

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CHEM 2701 Pre Health Chemistry

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CHEM 2701 Pre Health Chemistry

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Course Code: CHEM2701
University: Durham College

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Country: Canada

Question:

When lactose enters the large intestine it osmotically draws in water and causes diarrhea. The lactose also undergoes fermentation in the large intestine, and produces lactic acid, which can be detected in the stool. That is one way to test for lactose intolerance in a person. Lactose intolerance is often passed on genetically, and unfortunately, there is no known cure for the condition.
Drinking milk can be painful for individuals who are lactose intolerant.

Number match the parts of an enzyme and substrate. More than one letter may apply.

1=enzyme 
2=substrate
3=active site 
4=enzyme-substrate complex
5=product

 Instead of drinking lactose free milk someone might take lactase tablets. Do you think this would work Explain why/how What is the difference between lactose and lactase differences needed for full marks. Identify 2 factors that can affect enzyme activity.Describe the structure of a triglyceride.
Olestra is a synthetic fat that was discovered in the 1990’s. It was popular at the time because it had the taste and texture of a real fat but did not cause weight gain. Olestra is also known as olean. Research olestra/olean at the following links How is the structure of olean/olestra different from that of a normal fat/oil Which sugar/carbohydrate is present in olestra In a triglyceride, 3 fatty acid chains are attached to a glycerol backbone. In olestra, how many chains are attached How does olestra/olean impact vitamin absorption.

Answer:

Using the information from the above reading, categorize the following as either:

A source of energy
An amino acid
A stimulant
A vitamin
An artificial sweetener
A preservative
Related to metabolism

NB: Numbers can be used more than once or not at all

Biomolecules of the products

sucrose

citric acid

taurine

aspartame

glutamine

Category # from above

1. A source of energy
 

7.Related to metabolism

3.A stimulant

5.An artificial sweetener

2.An amino acid

Biomolecules of the products

potassium sorbate

fructose

caffeine

sucralose

folic acid

Category # from above

6.A preservative

1.A source of energy

3.A stimulant

5.An artificial sweetener

7.Related to metabolism

 Lactose Intolerance (enzymes)

Number match the parts of an enzyme and substrate. More than one letter may apply.

1=enzyme A,C,E_____
2=substrate _D, D____
3=active site _A, E____
4=enzyme-substrate complex __C,D___
5=product _F, G____

 Instead of drinking lactose free milk someone might take lactase tablets. Do you think this would work? Explain why/how?

Yes, the lactase tablets help to break down the lactose in milk therefore the people can take the milk with lactose and then take lactase pills instead of the lactose free milk.

What is the difference between lactose and lactase? 2 differences needed for full marks.

Lactose is a carbohydrate polymer which has two smaller sugars while lactase is an enzymatic protein. Also, lactose is a disaccharide sugar, which is made up of one molecule of galactose and one molecule of glucose while lactase is able to generate  two monosaccharide molecule.

Identify 2 factors that can affect enzyme activity.The concentration of the enzymes, temperature and substrate concentration
3: Olestra (lipids)

Describe the structure of a triglyceride.Triglyceride is made of a glycerol and 3-fatty acid chains.

Olestra is a synthetic fat that was discovered in the 1990’s. It was popular at the time because it had the taste and texture of a real fat but did not cause weight gain. Olestra is also known as olean. Research olestra/olean at the following links:

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/clc.4960190508
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olestra

Why was olestra/olean banned?

Olestra/olean was banned due to its gaining up of weight due to the fake fat available, which includes diarrhea, cramps, and leaky bowel syndrome

How is the structure of olean/olestra different from that of a normal fat/oil?

Olean has 6 fatty acids instead of the 3 for the normal fat has.

Read the information on olestra available here: https://recipes.howstuffworks.com/question526.htm Which sugar/carbohydrate is present in olestra?

 In a triglyceride, 3 fatty acid chains are attached to a glycerol backbone. In olestra, how many chains are attached?

 6 to 8 fatty acids

 How does olestra/olean impact vitamin absorption?

The olestra is able to bid with the vitamins in the intestines and therefore inhibiting their absorption.
4: DNA Structure (nucleic acids)

A nucleotide contains a carbohydrate.

What is the name of the sugar/carbohydrate in DNA? How many carbon atoms does it have?

Deoxyribose is the main sugar found in DNA. It has 5 carbon atoms.

What is the name of the sugar/carbohydrate in RNA? How many carbon atoms does it have?

Ribose is the sugar found in RNA. Ribose has 5 major carbon atoms.

True/False:Uracil is a key component of DNA. Explain your answer.

False, Uracil is found in RNA and in DNA it is replaced by thymine and thus not a key component for DNA.

Multiselect:Choose the following that are part of the DNA structure.

Single stranded
Double stranded
Contains a nucleotide
Sugar-phosphate backbone
Contains ribose
Contains deoxyribose

5: Amino Acids and Protein Structure (proteins)

Multiselect: Choose all parts that make up an amino acid:

alpha amino group
nitrogenous base
r group
fatty acid
4 fused cyclical rings
disaccharide
phosphate
active site
acid group
glycoside linkage

Match protein structure level to the appropriate definitions.

1: primary structure
2: secondary structure
3: tertiary structure
4: quaternary structure

2

Alpha helix and beta sheets

3

3-dimensional folding of a protein

1

Linear sequence of amino acids

4

Protein consisting of more than 1 amino acid chain

Explain what happens to the structure of a protein if there is heat applied to it or a pH change has occurred.he heat and pH increase is able to disrupt the hydrogen and and the non-polar hydrophobic interactions. This increases the kinetic energy and therefore causing the molecule to vibrate t

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