B960 Health And Social Care

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B960 Health And Social Care

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B960 Health And Social Care

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Course Code: B960
University: University Of Cumbria

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Country: United Kingdom

Discuss about the Health and Social Care : Practice Development. Principles of care are essential to the community since it helps in improving the quality of life. There are vital facts that act as a source of confidence and behavior.

The principle of health and social care has various sections of principle which aim and provide brilliant healthcare services to all the individuals who need the support. The field uses the philosophy of care to support vulnerable individuals in which each services users’ problems are implementing and identified through their rights and legislation and codes of practice and standers. Therefore, patients are also protected from any physical or emotional abuse and harm through these legislations. Besides, promoting a person center way approach used by services ensure the personal needs and to promote values of consumers. However, through the principle care practice used to improve as well as care and necessities for patients yet, there are ethical dilemmas, and conflicts, are notified. Hence, social workers have a responsibility to demonstrate and all the necessary knowledge training to always comprehend and do what is expected of them to protect service users. In this essay, will explain person center values of health and social care. Also, will consider the impact of the implantation policy and legislation and code of practice. Finally, will discuss how principle evaluate the right and autonomy balanced against the need to protect the right of vulnerable people.
Application of principles of care
Principles of care are essential to the community since it helps in improving the quality of life. There are vital facts that act as a source of confidence and behavior.  They show the purposefulness of morals and ethical rights and stimulates the action taken (Barr et al. 2013, pp.263- 306). Hence it is essential to execute the perception in the contemporary community in regards to health and social care. The principles of concern that have been approved can confirm that equality in service provision is present and the confidentiality is preserved, and the rights of the victims are protected and considered. Also, proper communication skills are essential in the health and social sections. Appropriate communication is crucial since it creates understanding between the patients and the caregivers.
Confidentiality is essential in both health and social care settings. It is critical in enhancing good relationships between the caregiver and the victim. A lot of information is kept confidential during the admission of the victim in the health and social care facility (Dang, Westbrook, Njue and Giordano 2017, p82). Confidentiality is required to protect the patient from discrimination and other related issues.  The workers at the hospital will gain a lot of knowledge and understanding that the information given by the individual must be used to assist the victim and not to be shared among other individuals. However, in some situations, data had to be shared but done with the consent of the sufferer (Lakdawala 2015, p.98). The care providers must ensure that they fight oppression and challenge it and refuse to be part of it. All patients and staff must be treated equally to enhance respect. Equality improves good interpersonal relationships between the care provider and the victim.
Patient autonomy is explained as an ethical principle in healthcare. It is the right of the victim to determine his or the health issues. Informed consent is referred to as a voluntary decision made by a competent, autonomous person to accept or reject some proposed activities (Dickinson and O’Flynn, 2016).  Autonomy and privacy and informed consent are vital within care and surgical settings.  For instance, in the surgical context, sufferers might need highly specialized nursing care, assistance with their actions daily and technological recommendations during the pre-, peri-, and postoperative times (Wallace 2000, 727–30). Therefore nurses must pay attention to the issues associated with vulnerable sufferer autonomy, privacy, and informed consent.
Furthermore, the issue of informed consent is critical in preserving the autonomy of the victim. When the independence of the victim is respected, informed consent could be explained as autonomous authorization for nursing intervention.  The sufferer needs appropriate information to provide informed consent in regards to the autonomy exercise of the sufferer.
Everybody has the right to have his or her bodily integrity protected against other people’s invasion.  The confidentiality of the patient is highly recommended to prevent the, from facing discrimination from others (Hendry et al. 2018, pp.18).  However, in some situations, health experts are not honest with their victims regarding the diagnosis but are aware that they need to provide more information openly (Nordgren & Fridlund 2001, 117–25). There is a need to protect the rights of vulnerable individuals since they cannot speak for themselves. The principles of care provide the patients and care providers with an opportunity to communicate and create better relationships that will promote their well-being.  Besides, it encourages the confidentiality of the patient to avoid negative issues that are brought about by lack of privacy.
According to Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, the needs of motivations of individuals are analyzed.   He arranged hierarchically five main levels of needs. The most necessary basic needs are at the bottom whereas self-actualization and self-esteem are at the top. The theory indicates that the most vital level of needs should always be taken care of to take care of the secondary levels of needs. Motivation is defined as the scope of requirements and aim for persistent advance (Munn-Giddings & Winter, 2013). The needs encompass physiological needs like air, clothing, housing, water, sex, and sleep. The safety needs cover protection from threats, harm and security purposes. Also, Maslow argues that human beings need to feel a sense of love, belonging and acceptance within their social category which is crucial.
Another Maslow factor is esteem whereby a person values other individual’s opinion so that they can believe in themselves and increase attention by taking part in different activities within the group (Maslow, 1943). This helps in avoiding low self-esteem that might lead to an imbalance in this category. The last factor in Maslow’s hierarchy that is self-actualization. In this level, there is a desire to attain everything that a person can.
Importance of legislation that underpins care
There are five aspects to principles core of care that assist care. This encompasses appreciating the uniqueness of everyone, individual establishment of responsibility, respecting decisions and autonomy, respecting and acknowledging confidentiality, realizing the context of the people and also respects the equality that offers opportunities of accessing high quality of care that promotes personal requirements with respect and comprehending  how a person’s background society and culture can affect the victims experience and choice by speaking for themselves and being different from others (Guideline Adaptation Committee,2016  ). The principles of care include promoting effective communication and relationships; promoting anti-disciplinary practice encompassing policies and codes of practice; maintaining confidentiality of information; encouraging and supporting individual’s right to dignity, independence, empowerment, choice and safety ; acknowledging individuals personal beliefs and identity and respecting diversity; protecting individuals from abuse; giving personalized care.
People who need care and attention require social support from healthcare experts, social help and social care providers as ascertained in social responsibility. This is essential for the victims especially drug addicts, people with disability, poverty and old people in the society (Oxtoby, 2010, p.c6025). Therefore it is useful to involve the principles of care in work undertaken in social and health care.  For example in the case of Winterbourne View which was a private hospital owned by Castle-beck Care Limited.
The hospital was designed to harbor 24 sufferers into different wards, and it was registered as a sanatorium giving evaluation and treatment and rehabilitation for people with learning disabilities and autism. The facility was closed after the Paranoma investigation which found out that there was systematic abuse while the patients are suffering since they are away from their families and the staff is out of control.  The families were not allowed to go inside the room, but they wait for the patients in the visiting area. The care provider mistreated the patients in the presence of other caregivers. There were there were there e caregivers who harmed a patient by taking the patient to the floor, and one of them is lying across the patient s chest with an arm across the throat. The patient suffered an injured arm the previous year. This was not assistance or treatment but a punishment.
The principles of care could be essential for the improvement of health and social care services (Jackson n.d, pp.339-344). Winterbourne view hospital could have ensured that the patients are treated well regardless of their ethnicities and backgrounds.  In contemporary society, there are many different people from different ethnicities, color religion and other things that signify their existence.
Law is essential in promoting healthcare and helping individuals to access same services.  It helps the responsibility to make sure that agencies and individuals provide periodically and proportionate responses when abuse or neglect have happened (Aveyard, 2014). Additionally, a lot of people have been neglected due to their learning disorder, and many are also discriminated.
Furthermore, it empowers people and supports them to make their own decisions and give informed consent regarding their treatment (Dimond, 2016). Also, the policy encourages prevention since it is better to take action before a problem happens. Preventions help in avoiding critical issues in the future (Department of Health, 2013). Moreover, the Mental Health Act 2007 aims to give mental health care services for individuals with mental sickness. Every individual has a right to confidentiality in respect of his or her illness and treatment (Cameron, Lart, Bostock, and Coomber 2014, pp.225-233).
Additionally, The Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act (SVGA) 2006 protects the dignity encompassing treating people with respect. It also helps in avoiding harm by preventing individuals who are deemed unsuitable to work with vulnerable people from gaining entry to them through their work (Department of Health, 2013). The Care Act 2014 offers assistance that aims to take responsibility and support the patients clearer and fairer and also develop personalization in care (Howard 2004, 212-215). This act helps the vulnerable people in promoting their wellbeing at the center of decisions. Also,   Data Protection Act 2018 protects individuals and provide rules about how information about individuals can be used. The Equality Act 2010  protects individuals that experience discrimination because they are associated with a person who has preserved features which encompass maturity, disability, sex, religion or belief, and race. Lastly, The Health and Social Act of 2012 seeks to modernize care by supporting new services and providing victims with a more significant voice in their care.
Issues of care and control in health and social care
Nurses are taking full independence for diagnosis and prescriptions. There is a need for individual experts to pay attention to their accountability with this independence. Also, there is a risk in existence in all areas of practice. The community nurses will be expected to adopt responsibilities that have been taken by other experts which may be related to high levels of Risks (Vincent, Taylor-Adams, Chapman, et al., 2000). The existing developments create chances to improve patient care and also to help them to be aware of their accountability. This will assist in identifying risks and provide a necessary solution. The health practitioners embrace their responsibility and engage in risk management. The nurses act proactively to make sure that they give high-quality service that meets the victim’s requirements by applying the principles of risk management (Keleher and MacDougall, 2015).  The process of risk management involves the risk identification, selection, and evaluation of measures to decrease hazards to human health. Risk management aims to make a plan that considers clinical, cultural, social, economic, ethical-legal and political considerations.  
Safety of the patient is paramount at all times, and nurses play an essential role to ensure that the patients are given care that they need. They represent a part in identifying the risks and assessing them (Department of Health, 2002). After the assessment, they evaluate the risks and establish measures taken to manage them. In some cases, some patients might be abusive, but the nurses are required to enhance their ethical standards and deal with the patient accordingly.
In conclusion, principles of health and social care have various scopes whose main aim is to give health care services to all individuals in the community that need help.  It focuses on helping vulnerable individuals by executing and identifying their issues through their rights and legislation codes of conduct. Furthermore, principles of care are essential to the community since it helps in enhancing the quality of life. They show the purposefulness of morals and ethical rights and stimulates the action that needs to be taken.  Furthermore, legislation helps an individual to access similar services. It makes sure that the agencies and individuals give timely responses when abuse and neglect have occurred. Patient autonomy helps the patient to determine his or her health issues. The patient also has the opportunity to make a voluntary decision on some proposed actions.
Aveyard, H., 2014. Doing a literature review in health and social care: A practical guide. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Barr, J., Fraser, G.L., Puntillo, K., Ely, E.W., Gélinas, C., Dasta, J.F., Davidson, J.E., Devlin, J.W., Kress, J.P., Joffe, A.M. and Coursin, D.B., 2013. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of pain, agitation, and delirium in adult patients in the intensive care unit. Critical care medicine, 41(1), pp.263-306.
Cameron, A., Lart, R., Bostock, L. and Coomber, C., 2014. Factors that promote and hinder joint and integrated working between health and social care services: a review of research literature. Health & social care in the community, 22(3), pp.225-233.
Dang, B.N., Westbrook, R.A., Njue, S.M. and Giordano, T.P., 2017. Building trust and rapport early in the new doctor-patient relationship: a longitudinal qualitative study. BMC medical education, 17(1), p.32.
Department of Health (2013) Draft National Minimum Eligibility Threshold for Adult Care and Support. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/209595/National_Eligibility_Criteria_-_discussion_document.pdf accessed on [11/10/2016]
Department of Health (DH) (2002) Liberating the Talents: Helping Primary Care Trusts and Nurses Deliver the NHS Plan. DH, London
Dickinson, H. and O’Flynn, J., 2016. Evaluating Outcomes in Health and Social Care 2e. Policy Press.
Dimond, B.C., 2016. Legal Aspects of Mental Capacity: A Practical Guide for Health and Social Care Professionals. John Wiley & Sons.
Guideline Adaptation Committee, 2016. Clinical practice guidelines and principles of care for people with dementia. Sydney: Guideline Adaptation Committee.
Hendry, A., Taylor, A., Millar, S., Rainey, H., Whoriskey, M. and Knight, P., 2018. Beyond the legislation-investing in sustainable transformation. International Journal of Integrated Care, pp.18
Howard, H. (2004) The principles of care: How to value difference. Nursing and Residential Care, vol, 6, no. 5, Pg. 212-215 – [available as an handout on Moodle2]
Jackson, J., n.d. Personal Beliefs and Patient Care. Principles of Health Care Ethics, pp.339–344.
Keleher, H. and MacDougall, C., 2015. Understanding health(No. Ed. 4). Oxford University Press.
Lakdawala, P.D., 2015. Doctor-patient relationship in psychiatry. Mens sana monographs, 13(1), p.82.
Maslow, a. h. (1943). A theory of human motivation. psychological review
Munn-Giddings, C., & Winter, R. (2013). A handbook for action research in health and social care. Routledge
Nordgren S, Fridlund B (2001) Patients’ perceptions of self-determination as expressed in the context of care. J Adv Nurs 35(1): 117–25
Oxtoby, K., 2010. Raising concerns. Bmj, p.c6025.
Vincent C, Taylor-Adams S, Chapman EJ et al (2000) How to investigate and analyse clinical incidents: Clinical Risk Unit and Association of Litigation and Risk Management protocol. BMJ 320: 777–81
Wallace B (2000) Nurses and consent. Prof Nurse 15(11): 727–30.

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