400418 Health Advancement And Health Promotion

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400418 Health Advancement And Health Promotion

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400418 Health Advancement And Health Promotion

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Course Code: 400418
University: Western Sydney University

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Country: Australia

Question:
Complete a systematic review of the literature in a content area of your choice, concluding with clear and succinct objectives for a new health promotion intervention based on your assessment of the evidence you consider.
 
 
Answer:

Introduction:
Smoking is considered as one of the major challenge in public health resulting in disability leading to death (Kohl et al., 2012). The death by tobacco consumption was recorded to be 5 million globally which is estimated to double by 2020 (Mallath et al., 2014). It not only influences the health but also affects burden the health care, poverty, with environmental damage causing cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, coronary diseases, cancer and pneumonia (Jones, Podolsky & Greene, 2012). Despite the risks, the mortality rates are higher in smokers than the non-smokers. Health promotion strategies play an active role in preventing smoking by making the population aware. Evaluating some of the interventions has showed positive effects but still some studies lack the effectiveness. There is numerous health promoting methods for prevention against smoking which had a positive impact on the issue. In this review we will evaluate the effective methods to promote heath by preventing smoking.
Methods:
Search Strategy
In order to obtain relevant papers we researched in PubMed, MEDLINE. The terms that searched in these databases were “prevention of smoking tendency”, “heath promoting interventions for smoking prevention”, “smoking cessation” and “Methods to cause cessation of smoking”. The papers that were obtained by searching from the above mentioned databases were included in this review of literature study were on the basis of the following categories.
Inclusion Criteria
The analysis was restrained on the programs recently conducted articles. Relevant articles published since 2012 until the present year spanning a timeline of six years have been incorporated in the review. Secondly, the population that was included in this study comprises the local, subnational and national studies that were linked to the methods for promoting the single health for the purpose of preventing and cessation of smoking.
 
Exclusion Criteria
Articles depicting studies that have been published before 2012 were excluded. Studies that included multiple health promotional events regarding the cessation and preventing of smoking tendency were excluded in this review.
                                                                                                      Flow Chart
 

Interventional approaches:
Promoting heath through theatre:
Theatre is considered as one of the effective platform in creating heath related awareness and disseminating messages towards good health. Promoting health awareness through theatre is an influential strategy (Hennink et al., 2012). The audience involves whole heartedly and encourages the actor. The integral role of the actor makes a relationship between the facts and the fiction about the topic chosen in narrating the drama. The theatre methodologies are based upon the theories of drama along with theories of social cognition. This method will recognize the behavioural traits of the human that interacts with various aspects such as individual aspects, behavioural aspects and contextual aspects. In order to understand the effectiveness of this promotion, a study was conducted where 24 schools of primary level were divided into 3 sections, one section of group was taken as control, and one as a theatre incorporated in education intervention and other was school for intervening smoking policy. The result that came out was that the boys showed a decreased positive effect with no effect on the girls (Ussher, Taylor & Faulkner, 2012). Theatre production name “2 smart 2 smoke” with other activities accompanying gave a significant impact upon the psychological based risk factors related to smoking in students who were in 1-3 grades and 4-6 grades. The intervention played positively among the students with an increase of 10% who said not to smoke ever (Abdullah et al., 2013). There still remains a lacuna in delivering positive results through theatre promotion. Thus the intervention should be made as scientific as possible along with being assessed by professional help.
 
Promoting through media advocacy and mass media campaigns:
Along with theatre promotional intervention, media advocacy also impacts the program by framing an issue nicely and advocating that particular issue utilising the media as the stage.  The media is used as a platform in order to disseminate the information with an aim to alter the mind of public or alter their views (McCallum & Waller, 2013). Thus advocacy through media should be made by implementing on strong principles for planning. The planning through media advocacy is approached through “GOTME” (Goal, Objective, Target, Message and Evaluation) (Riff, Lacy & Fico, 2014). The effectiveness of the media advocacy was implemented in many heath promotional programs concerning the significant environmental along with changing policy. The Project Tobacco Reduction Using Effective Strategies and Teamwork incorporates the advocacy of media by rewarding the retailer providing coverage of positive newspaper to compile the laws comprising the underage to sell tobacco products (Silva et al., 2016). The main impact was completely focussed on preventing smoking. It was found that there occurred a passage in placing the tobacco products ordinances in Florida, with changed ordinances there was no significant reduction in smoking prevalence recorded among the youth (Wolfson, 2017).  Thus advocacy through media can be seen in implementing trough wider policy as it can provide a subsequent platform in raising policy issues.
Campaigning through mass media plays a crucial role related to media interventions. These campaigns are done through television, newspapers and through radios in exposing the messages to the population. Mass campaigning through media thus plays both positive and changes role in changing the behaviour related to health proving as a useful technique in producing an issue followed by encouraged debate (Teyhen et al., 2014). The approach of the mass media is based on social influencing theories and theories of social learning. Mass media is thus an appropriate way to deliver the antismoking messages pointing the young people specially as they are thought to be more media exposed (DellaVigna & Ferrara, 2015). In studies of interventional review to assess the smoking behaviour investigation was done to see the mass media preventive effort which was directed towards youths who were below 25 years age taking a controlled design of clinical  trial (). Overall three studies were conducted in association to reduce the smoking outcomes. In one of the conducted study it was found a significant decrease of girls smoking   consisting of 8.6% net increase in intervention versus in control with 12.4 %. Whereas about 6.8 to 10.5 % non significant trend was noticed in boys with follow up of 3 years. Another study impact was compared between the programs that were school based with the media mass and the other one was intervention through schools alone. The effect was significant in case of combined intervention in comparison to the intervention through school alone. The effectiveness of interventions through mass media was assessed and was found that the programs related to tobacco control that includes the campaigns through mass media showed significant effect in altering the smoking behaviour seen in adults. The effectiveness varies based on duration and intensity of the mass media campaigns (Brinn et al., 2012).
 
Conclusion
Study objectives from the evidence:
Promotional programs related to anti smoking are useful and needed to provide awareness messages to the general population for health planning. In this context, the theatre, advocacy through media and campaigning through mass media can prove to be an essential and influencing tool to alter the changes in smoking pattern. Spreading awareness through mass media approaches to improvise the behaviour of the population health. Planning carefully and performing tests with the targeted individuals is very much essential in delivering proper message. Emphasising should be based on involving the small sections of people representing the sample on which the campaigns are directed. These types of groups can be incorporated for the development of the awareness messages.
 
Conclusion from the evidence:  
From the above review it can be concluded that interventional programs for health promotion is a three dimensional approach in preventing and stoping the smoking habit. Approaching and reaching the public masses through theatre and mass media interventional approach and altering the environment through advocacy of media can be an important effective tool to induce the awareness of putting an end to smoking. The methods mentioned includes certain principles to induce change in terms of individual, changing the social norms within community and efforts by socio-political in promoting the better heath within the population. Before implementing any changes in the individual behaviour it can be more effective to focus the interventions on social attitude and changes in environment. Therefore, capacity of population to address the alternations is the major factors that influence the effective promotional health efforts to prevent smoking and stoping it.
Further Research
Exploratory research and more examinations that are interventional must be carried out to support in favour of the utility and effectiveness of incorporating mass media and other avenues to combat and prevent the ill effects of smoking through causation of alterations in the behavioural and environmental approache
 
References:
Abdullah, A. S., Stillman, F. A., Yang, L., Luo, H., Zhang, Z., & Samet, J. M. (2013). Tobacco use and smoking cessation practices among physicians in developing countries: A literature review (1987–2010). International journal of environmental research and public health, 11(1), 429-455.
Brinn, M. P., Carson, K. V., Esterman, A. J., Chang, A. B., & Smith, B. J. (2012). Cochrane Review: Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Evidence?Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal, 7(1), 86-144.
DellaVigna, S., & Ferrara, E. L. (2015). Economic and social impacts of the media (No. w21360). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Hennink, M., Kiiti, N., Pillinger, M., & Jayakaran, R. (2012). Defining empowerment: perspectives from international development organisations. Development in Practice, 22(2), 202-215.
Jones, D. S., Podolsky, S. H., & Greene, J. A. (2012). The burden of disease and the changing task of medicine. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(25), 2333-2338.
Kohl, H. W., Craig, C. L., Lambert, E. V., Inoue, S., Alkandari, J. R., Leetongin, G., … & Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group. (2012). The pandemic of physical inactivity: global action for public health. The Lancet, 380(9838), 294-305.
Mallath, M. K., Taylor, D. G., Badwe, R. A., Rath, G. K., Shanta, V., Pramesh, C. S., … & Kapoor, S. (2014). The growing burden of cancer in India: epidemiology and social context. The Lancet Oncology, 15(6), e205-e212.
McCallum, K., & Waller, L. (2013). The intervention of media power in indigenous policy-making. Media International Australia, 149(1), 139-149.
Riff, D., Lacy, S., & Fico, F. (2014). Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research. Routledge.
Silva, L. C. C. D., Araújo, A. J. D., Queiroz, Â. M. D. D., Sales, M. D. P. U., & Castellano, M. V. C. D. O. (2016). Smoking control: challenges and achievements. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, 42(4), 290-298.
Teyhen, D. S., Aldag, M., Centola, D., Edinborough, E., Ghannadian, J. D., Haught, A., … & Martindale, V. E. (2014). Key enablers to facilitate healthy behavior change: workshop summary. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, 44(5), 378-387.
Ussher, M. H., Taylor, A., & Faulkner, G. (2012). Exercise interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 1.
Wolfson, M. (2017). The Fight Against Big Tobacco: the Movement, the State and the

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