1PCW1 : Wellness And Wellbeing

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1PCW1 : Wellness And Wellbeing

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1PCW1 : Wellness And Wellbeing

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Course Code: 1PCW1
University: National University Of Ireland Galway

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The beginning modules introduce the concepts of wellness and wellbeing and discuss some ideas about society’s perceptions of wellness and wellbeing. These modules also discuss the factors that can influence children’s attainment of wellness and wellbeing.This assignment has three components:1. Define the concepts of wellness and wellbeing.2. Discuss three factors that can influence a child’s attainment of wellness.You must:discuss the factors you have chosen using some of the health model perspectives and health related theories in your readingsincorporate discussion regarding the impact of media aspects as they relate to health issuesconsider issues of equity as per Module 3 and associated readings.3. Discuss strategies early childhood programmes can implement to support families towards improving their child’s wellness and wellbeing in relation to the issues you have selected.Rationaleback to topThis assessment task will assess the following learning outcome/s:1 understand the concepts of wellness and wellbeing from a health model and how this pertains to the early childhood context.2 recognise the impact that wellness and wellbeing has on the continuing development of the individual (adult and child).3 analyse the social and media aspects related to health issues.4 reflect on the social value placed on wellness and wellbeing and how this influences educators’ perspectives on teaching practice in early childhood settings.5 consider theoretical and practical means for fostering the wellness and wellbeing of children, staff and families in early childhood settings.6 recognise the relationship that overall wellbeing has to social competence and the role that early childhood professionals have in fostering this.Students will demonstrate a strong understanding of the holistic nature of health and the different concepts of wellness and wellbeing in relation to society and environments. They will also demonstrate an ability to link these theoretical understandings to early childhood practice.


Good nutrition is a part of an individual’s healthy lifestyle. The combination of the element such as diet, together with the involvement in physical exercises can help to reach a good level of health, and reduce the risks of diseases. Health denotes about the state of complete mental, social, and emotional wellbeing of an individual. The concepts associated with the health of an individual are wellness and wellbeing. Wellness is more than the physical health, exercise and the intake of nutrition. It represents the total integration of condition of physical, social, mental, and spiritual wellbeing. Wellbeing is a broader term representing a holistic approach, of the life-experience. It indicates the level of comfort and contentment in the life of an individual. The essay brings about the analysis of the concepts that are related to the wellness and wellbeing in the life of a child particularly (McMurray & Clendon, 2011).
A high level of wellbeing indicates the positive condition of a person. The essay discusses in the later part the factors which influence the wellbeing and wellness of a child. Also, there is description of the strategies to be formulated and the programmes related to the development of a child in younger years. The attainment and maintenance of the child wellbeing and wellness is a major concern nowadays. Thus, the assessment is carried out in the respect of gaining an understanding of the wellbeing and the impact on the health of the children (Wiley, 2018).
The role of health in the development of an individual is studied in several dimensions, which includes the concept of health, wellness, and wellbeing. Better health is central to the human happiness, and the wellbeing. The health practitioners command that one should gain and enhance the understanding from wellness to wellbeing. Wellbeing is a wider concept and the wellness is a narrow concept. Wellness is just a part of the wellbeing as the later one stresses on the total health of an individual rather than just the physical health (Seller, Russo, Baker & Dennison, 2005, p.230). Wellness consist of the element of physical health but also emotional, psychological, mental and the intellectual factors of health. Wellness is an active, continuous and lifelong oriented process which involving putting efforts towards, maximisation of one’s potential. It eliminates the factors such as depression, stress, anger, anxiety and the negative impact of things on one’s life (McMahon, Tay, Tapsell, & Williams, 2016, p. 80).
Wellbeing in the course of life of every individual during each stage of life is considered important. Several benefits are attached with the wellbeing of an individual’s health. These include the health, job, family, economically related benefits of life. For an instance a higher level of wellbeing is associated with the decreased risks of the illness and several other injuries. This also contributes to the maintenance of the strong immune system of the body. It improvises the functioning of the systems and organs in the human body, and in case of the any disease the speed of recovery and the longevity of life. Moreover, the individuals with the high-wellbeing level generally become more productive as compared to other individuals, and contribute to their communities (Liamputtong, Fanany & Verrinder, 2012, p. 13).
 In the context of the essay which focuses on the wellness and wellbeing states that the subject of wellbeing in the early childhood includes several aspects. It states that the wellbeing of the children is a multi-dimensional approach; also it considers the measures that cover both the objective and subjective perspective of life. It also emphasizes their deficiencies, strengths and attributes and the difficulties faced by them in their younger years. This can be described with the help of the health models these models are the frameworks that defines the ways of thinking about health. Holistic and the medical model of health supports in gaining an understanding about the wellness and wellbeing (Dowling, 2012).
The use of several models associated with the wellness and wellbeing in the childhood includes the Hettler’s model which emphasises creating a balance between the six factors. These six factors are physical, spiritual, intellectual, social, emotional, and occupational. The models or theories which are associated with the health of a child or an adult include the assessment of cognitive factors. It includes theories such as health-belief model, cognitive theory, and the theories of reasoned action and planned behaviour. In raising and increasing the possibilities of a healthy child, it is essential focus on both their physical health and emotional health between the age of 4 and 17 years. Age appropriate activities and safe healthy environment is essential for their wellbeing (Davis, et.al, 2012, p.1200).
A number of factors that affects the child’s development in the early years ranging from the family, environment to genes and biology, impact the growth and development in the future. The three important factors relating to the development process of a child include, genetic or hereditary factors, environmental and seasonal and the third factor can be chronic diseases and the sedentary lifestyle. The factors which influence the wellness and development of a child, during the course of life, these can be further categorised as follows (Carson, Kuzik, Hunter, Wiebe, Spence, Friedman & Hinkley, 2015, p. 575).
Genetic Factors
These factors are important and the most common towards causing influence on the child’s wellness and wellbeing. For instance tall parents have tall offspring. As genes are the risk factors in life of every individual since their birth which cannot be changed. However, these genes affect the child’s growth and development to a greater degree as they can predispose them to certain diseases and disabilities which are inherited from their parents. Early interventions and proper care can help prevent the outcome of these factors on the physical health of the child (Klosek, 2015).   
Nutritional Factors
Intake of Nutritional diet is essential for development of the child; as the lack or deficiency of nutrition gradually retards the physical growth. Malnutrition in the early childhood years leads to the problems as when the child grows. According to the World Health Organisation early malnutrition can have devastating results leading to the irreversible harm to the child’s brain development which also includes the physical growth. Families must take care about the growth and development of their children in their early stages as it affects their wellness (L, 2012, p. 260). Taking a proper balanced diet is essential for them; balanced diet contains all the basic food principles or elements such as proteins, vitamin, and minerals. Intake of the proper diet affects the human body in a positive manner and prevents the occurrence of health issues. Along with the nutrition, physical activities are the other factor which affects the wellness of children (Cherry, 2017).
Socio-Economic factors and chronic diseases
Poor socio-economic conditions in the early childhood impacts their learning and growth to a great extent. These factors states about the poor sanitary conditions, problems related to housing, stressful family condition. Also, it includes the instability of the financial condition of the family which have a direct and major impact on the growth and wellbeing of their children. According to the annual review of psychology, it has been recommended that the adequacy of the financial health of the family contributes to their children lead a positive and optimal life (Whitney & Rolfes, 2018).
Chronic diseases are the other factors which also influences the wellness and the growth rate. Defined by the U.S National Center Health Statistics, chronic diseases generally last for 3 months or more, affecting their immunity. These diseases are generally unpreventable even with the use of vaccines or medications. It includes untreated heart diseases, lung, and liver diseases that impair the growth and development. Growth hormone deficiency and hypotension are some of the problems caused by condition of chronic diseases that should be treated as early as possible. The models associated with the health of the individual or the child in their earlier years include ‘Health-belief model, ‘Model of Wellness’, and several other such as biomedical model of health respectively. Discussing about these models the factors have been taken by analysing the health belief model, biomedical health, and Model of Wellness (Deacon & McKay, 2015, p. 2).
The Biomedical model of health explains the physical, biological aspects of the individuals’ disease and wellness. The model is used and prescribed the health care professionals and applied in the diagnosis, cure, and the treatment therapies. Amongst all, the holistic model of wellness is used to reflect the research on wellness and the perception by the different cultures in the society (Kearns, 2010, p.145).
It is the most common and prevailing model applied in the health care settings, and being multidimensional it has a greater influence on the health of the individuals. However, there is a relative importance of the biological model for an instance, the chemotherapy for treating cancer, medications given to lower the blood pressure. These are some of the examples which include the biological model (Romano & Scott, 2014, p. 710).
Talking about the theories includes the application of the behavioural child development theory focusing on the factor that affects the behaviour in the early years of childhood. According to the perspective of behaviourists it was assumed that the psychology should focus on the identification of the observable, quantifiable behaviour which will further improve the efficiency of the discipline in the field (Carson, Hunter, Kuzik, Wiebe, Spence, Friedman & Hinkley, 2016).
Equity in health refers to the social justice in health, disparities in the health accounts for the differences in the health that influences the socially disadvantaged groups of the society. Therefore, equity in the health can be defined as the situation in which everyone has equal opportunities to lead a normal, long and a healthy life. It also implies that the health is the most important element in the life of every individual. Therefore, it should not be overlooked based on the grounds of ethnicity, gender, income, and sexual-orientation. The issues in the health are the justice, and the elimination of the disparities. Happiness of children is totally related with the state of emotional wellbeing and mental health. It is considered that a child learns well when he/she is happy, and happiness must be the objective of education. It is an active state of body, not the absence of pain. Presently the emotional wellbeing is strongly emphasised in rich countries and communities where the external conditions do not affect the person or child (Eaude, 2009, p. 187).
It is significant to achieve the health equity, especially in the case of the children in their years of the growth and development, because it will enable the individual (or child) to achieve the plans of their life. The issues which have been selected for the purpose of the studying the aspects of wellness and wellbeing, includes the problems of ‘abuse at home’ and ‘Malnutrition in the early stages of life’. The above mentioned issues are common to all the families and they have significant influence on the upbringing and the growth of the chid. Moreover, the lack of financial resources can be another major issue faced by them affect the quality of life and the attainment of the wellness and life goals (De Pee, Grais, Fenn, Brown, Briend, Frize & Kiess, 2015, p. 25).
Discussing the aspects of health equity and their importance it has been found that the media play a vital role for the same. The life of healthy people are characterised by balance and potential (Braveman, 2014, p.369). To promote the health equity, the interventions of the social media has been gradually increasing. Social media has been proved effective than other tools as they can easily move forward to promote the health equity, having the power to cross the geographical and physical access barriers. Social media consist of the activities such as discussion forums, blogs, and social-networks (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018).
 Along-with the positive effects, social media exerts negative influences, as these interventions increase the health inequities especially for the people who have no or limited access to the health care facilities. It also includes the families due to which their children face the problems of inadequacy of the health benefits (Center on the developing child, 2018). Health promotion campaigns and other tools such as the applications linked to the communities and the media sharing are some of the essentially recognised tools. The impact of the social media aspects which promotes equity and the promotion of health should be considered important. In the promotion of health equity social media serves the purpose of creating the awareness about the health benefits, and the health issues to the children as well as adults (Welch, Petkovic, Pardo, Rader & Tugwell, 2016, p. 21).
Children in their younger age demands proper care and education for their betterment and effective growth and development in the future. With respect to the issues of ‘malnutrition’ and the abuse at their home; also referred as ‘domestic violence’. As they impact the mental and emotional wellbeing of the child in their early stages that affects their understanding and emotional intelligence. It may also lead to the development of negative attitude towards their family, friends, or life. Therefore, some strategies or the methods can be helpful for enhancing the status of wellbeing of the child. The childhood programmes strategies may include family engagement strategies to foster early care and education, which enhances their learning and understanding about the importance of health (Early Childhood Development, 2018).
For an instance the Open Society Foundations implement the programmes practices the strategies for improving the wellness of a child. As per the commonly observed and demonstrated issue such as malnutrition which contributes the major child deaths. This is the major cause of the increasing food prices, economic recessions, increasing competition for the natural resources and the changes in the climatic conditions (Born Selly, 2012, p.7).
Some strategies in this fact can be helpful for such families include, Ready-to-use Therapeutic Food (RUTF), for the problem of malnutrition. The strategies include providing the food which is safe to be used at home, and would increase their weights quickly which will help them improve the child wellness. The other strategies can be bio-fortification, therapeutic diets, and the use of pre-biotic foods that overcome the situation of malnutrition (Open Society Foundations, 2018).
A disturbance in the child wellbeing or wellness also leads to the problems of obesity and other health diseases may also occur. A high quality early childhood programmes aims at providing a safe and a nurturing environment to the child in their early years, which will eliminate the issues of abuse and malnutrition. This will ultimately improve the wellness and wellbeing of the child. Several other programmes can be enlisted which enhances the overall physical, social, mental and cognitive development of the child (Project Launch, 2016).
Head Start
The term is described as one of the federal program or the initiative which is headed towards promoting the school readiness of the children from the age of 5 years, belonging to the lo-income family group. It is mainly focused towards enhancing the cognitive, emotional, and social development of the child (Robbins, Powers & Burgess, 2009, p. 20).
Early childhood Health and Home Visiting strategies
These are some of the other strategies that focus to resolve the issues of the children and families in the communities. It tries to effectively respond to the varied needs of the families and supports them when they are at the risk. This in turn impacts positively their child’s growth and development directly. Along with this, the implication of the home visiting strategies proved to be beneficial in this regard (UNICEF, 2018).
To conclude the above stated discussion on the wellness and wellbeing of the child, it can be analysed that health is one of the crucial factors of life especially in the early years. The discussion revealed the fact that there are number of factors which represented the cause of the influence on the child’s attainment of wellness. These factors sometimes contribute positively or hinder their growth and development during different stages of life. The aspects of social media have also been majorly depicted in the above essay, playing a vital role in the health promotion. Awareness regarding the benefits of nutritional diet and the disadvantages of the neglect of health in the modern families has been constructively shaped by the social media. Early childhood programmes and strategies have been implemented that defines the ways and methods for the families to improve the wellness and wellbeing of their children.
Born Selly, P. (2012). Creating a greener earth, early childhood activities for a greener earth. United States: St. Paul, Redleaf press, 1-13.
Braveman, P. (2014). What is health equity: and how does a life-course approach take us further toward it? Maternal and child health journal, 18(2), 366-372.
Carson, V., Hunter, S., Kuzik, N., Wiebe, S. A., Spence, J. C., Friedman, A. & Hinkley, T. (2016). Systematic review of physical activity and cognitive development in early childhood. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 19(7), 573-578.
Carson, V., Kuzik, N., Hunter, S., Wiebe, S. A., Spence, J. C., Friedman, A. & Hinkley, T. (2015). Systematic review of sedentary behavior and cognitive development in early childhood. Preventive medicine, 78, 115-122.
Center on the developing child. (2018). Three principles to improve Outcomes for Children and Families. Retrieved from: https://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/three-early-childhood-development-principles-improve-child-family-outcomes/
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Using Social Media. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpao/state-local-programs/health-equity/socialmedia.html
Cherry, K. (2017). Child Development Theories and Examples. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/child-development-theories-2795068
Davis, E.,  Priest, N., Davies, B., Smyth, L., Waters, E., Herrman, H.,   Sims, M., Harrison, L., Cook, K., Marshall, B., & Williamson, L. (2012). Family day-care educators: an exploration of their understanding and experiences promoting children’s social and emotional wellbeing. Early Child Development and Care, 182(9), 1193-1208.              
De Pee, S., Grais, R., Fenn, B., Brown, R., Briend, A., Frize, J. & Kiess, L. (2015). Prevention of acute malnutrition: distribution of special nutritious foods and cash, and addressing underlying causes—what to recommend when, where, for whom, and how. Food and nutrition bulletin, 36(1), 24-29.
Deacon, B. J., & McKay, D. (2015). The biomedical model of psychological problems: A call for critical dialogue. Lancet, 16, 2-3.
Dowling, M.  (2012). Playing with thoughts and ideas: Young children’s thinking 3-5 years.  London:  SAGE Publications.
Early Childhood Development. (2018). Programs & Initiatives. Retrieved from: https://www.acf.hhs.gov/ecd/programs
Eaude, T. (2009). Happiness, emotional wellbeing and mental health- what has children’s spirituality to offer? International Journal of Children’s Spirituality, 14(3), 185-196.
Kearns, K. (2010). Children’s health, safety and wellbeing. The big picture. French’s Forest, Australia: NSW Pearson, 143-149.
Klosek, J. (2015). Wellness by Numbers: Understanding and Interpreting American Health Statistics. California: ABC-CLIO.
Liamputtong, P., Fanany, R. & Verrinder, G. (2012). Health, illness, and well-being: an introduction. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 11-17.
McMahon, A. T., Tay, P. C., Tapsell, L., & Williams, P. (2016). Building bridges in dietary counselling: an exploratory study examining the usefulness of wellness and wellbeing concepts. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics, 29(1), 75-85.
McMurray, A. & Clendon, J. (2011). Community Health and Wellness: Primary Health Care in Practice. 4th ed. United Kingdom: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Open Society Foundations. (2018). Early Childhood Program. Retrieved from: https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/about/programs/early-childhood-program
Portsmouth, L. (2012). Health, illness and well-being: Perspectives and social determinants. South Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 258-264.
Project Launch. (2016). Implementation of Young Child Wellness Strategies in a Unique Cohort of Local Communities. Retrieved from: https://healthysafechildren.org//sites/default/files/Project_LAUNCH_C3_E-Book_10.31.16.pdf
Robbins, G., Powers, D., & Burgess, S. (2009). Understanding wellness: In A wellness way of life. 8th ed.  7-14, 19-21, 23-26. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Romano, V. & Scott, I. (2014). Using health belief model to reduce obesity amongst African American and Hispanic populations. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, 707-711.
Sellers, K., Russo, T. J., Baker, I., & Dennison, B. A. (2005) The role of childcare providers in the prevention of childhood overweight. Journal of Early Childhood Research 3, 227-242.
UNICEF (2018). Early Childhood Care and Education Programmes. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/earlychildhood/index_69850.html
Welch, V., Petkovic, J., Pardo, J. P., Rader, T. & Tugwell, P. (2016). Interactive Social Media interventions to promote health equity: an overview of reviews. Government of Canada, 36(4), p. 21.
Whitney, E. N. & Rolfes, S. R. (2018). Understanding nutrition. Boston: Cengage Learning.
Wiley (2018). Health care in Australia. Retrieved from: https://www.wiley.com/legacy/Australia/Landing_Pages/KC_VCE_H&HD_U3&4_4E_c06_web.pdf

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